Recent Scientific Publications by the EHT Scientific Team

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Research by Dr. Devra Davis

Read a full list of Dr. Devra Davis’s publications.

 

Devra Davis, Anthony B. Miller, Iris Udasin, Ronald Melnick.“Wireless Radiation and Health.” Environmental Research, Special Issue (2018).

Anthony B. Miller, L. Lloyd Morgan, Iris Udasin, Devra Lee Davis, Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102), Environmental Research, Volume 167, 2018, Pages 673-683, ISSN 0013-9351

Fernández, A.A. de Salles, M.E. Sears, R.D. Morris, D.L. Davis, Absorption of wireless radiation in the child versus adult brain and eye from cell phone conversation or virtual reality, Environmental Research, 2018, ISSN 0013-9351

Gamze Altun, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Devra Davis, Süleyman Kaplan, Effects of mobile phone exposure on metabolomics in the male and female reproductive systems, Environmental Research, 2018, ISSN 0013-9351

Ahmad Yahyazadeh, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Gamze Altun, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Devra Davis, The genomic effects of cell phone exposure on the reproductive system, Environmental Research, 2018, ISSN 0013-9351

 

See Full List of Published Peer-Reviewed Articles in the Environmental Research Special Issue

 

Altun, Gamze, et al. “Protective effects of melatonin and omega-3 on the hippocampus and the cerebellum of adult Wistar albino rats exposed to electromagnetic fields.” Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure (2017).

  • “Significant cell loss in the CA1 and CA2 regions of hippocampus and granular cell loss in the dentate gyrus were observed in the EMF group. In the CA3 region of the EMF + ω3, a significant cell increase was found compared to other groups (p < 0.01), as well as more granular cells in the cerebellum than the Cont, EMF + Mel (p < 0.01). Significant Purkinje cell loss was found in the cerebellum of EMF group compared to the other (p < 0.01). EMF + Mel and EMF + ω3 showed the same protection compared to the Cont (p > 0.05). The passive avoidance test showed that entrance latency into the dark compartment was significantly shorter in the EMF (p < 0.05). Additionally, EMF had a higher serum enzyme activity than the other groups (p < 0.01).”
  • “In conclusion, our analyses confirm that EMF may lead to cellular damage in the hippocampus and the cerebellum, and that Mel and ω3 may have neuroprotective effects.”

 

Sepehrimanesh, Masood, et al. “Proteomic analysis of continuous 900-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in testicular tissue: a rat model of human cell phone exposure.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24.15 (2017): 13666–13673.

  • “Two protein spots were found differentially overexpressed (P < 0.05) in intensity and volume with induction factors 1.7 times greater after RF-EMF exposure.
  • Our results indicate that exposure to RF-EMF produces increases in testicular proteins in adults that are related to carcinogenic risk and reproductive damage. In light of the widespread practice of men carrying phones in their pockets near their gonads, where exposures can exceed as-tested guidelines, further study of these effects should be a high priority.”

Sepehrimanesh, M. & Davis, D.L. Proteomic impacts of electromagnetic fields on the male reproductive system, Comp Clin Pathol 26.2 (2017): 309-313.

  • “In this study, we reviewed structural and functional proteomic changes related to EMF exposure. Reported changes are categorized based on main affected tissue and also the most important adverse effects. Overall, these results demonstrate significant effects of radio frequency-modulated EMF exposure on the proteome, including both structural and functional impacts such as a decrease in the diameter and weight of the seminiferous tubules and the mean height of the germinal epithelium (Ozguner et al. 2005) and/or pathological and physiological changes in key biochemical components of the testicular tissues (Luo et al. 2013).

 

Kaplan, Suleyman and Devra Davis. “Controversies on Electromagnetic Fields in Neurobiology of Organisms.” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Special Issue 75.B (2016): 41-140.

  • This special issue of the Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy edited by Suleyman Kaplan, PhD and Devra Davis, PhD MPH contains five research reviews and five papers on the effects of EMF’s on the brain and nervous system.

Click here to see citations and highlights for the review papers in the special issue

Controversies on Electromagnetic Fields in Neurobiology of Organisms
Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy

Special issue edited by Suleyman Kaplan and Devra Davis

Volume 75, Part B, Pages 41-140 (September 2016)

 

Süleyman Kaplan, Devra Davis. Editorial. Pages 41-42

  • This special issue seeks to make a contribution to current literature about EMF by reviewing some of the basic underlying experimental science in the field relating to assessing impacts of electromagnetic fields on the structure and function of the developing nervous system. We present five reviews, followed by five research papers on the effects of the EMF on the nervous system.

 

Pall, Martin L. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 43-51.

  • “Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs.”
  • “In summary, then, the mechanism of action of microwave EMFs, the role of the VGCCs in the brain, the impact of non-thermal EMFs on the brain, extensive epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years, and five criteria testing for causality, all collectively show that various non-thermal microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric effects.”

 

Suleyman Kaplan, et al. “Electromagnetic field and brain development.” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 52-61.

  • “Rapid advances in technology involve increased exposures to radio-frequency/microwave radiation from mobile phones and other wireless transmitting devices.”
  • “The aim of this review is to discuss the developing CNS and explain potential impacts of EMF on this system.”

 

Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, et al. “Different methods for evaluating the effects of microwave radiation exposure on the nervous system.” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 62-69.

  • Overview to different frequencies of electromagnetic field radiation exposure.
  • Possible side effects of microwave radiation on the central nervous system.
  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis to reveal the effects of the electromagnetic field exposure.

 

Ferhat Say, et al. “Controversies related to electromagnetic field exposure on peripheral nerves.”  Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 70-76.

  • Possible effects of electromagnetic field.
  • How electromagnetic field affects the peripheral nerve structure?
  • Experimental and clinical studies of nervous system on the electromagnetic field.

 

Murat Terzi, et al. “The role of electromagnetic fields in neurological disorders.”  Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 77-84.

  • Description of electromagnetic fields and evaluation of its possible effects on biological systems.
  • The association between the electromagnetic field and neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Experimental and clinical studies on the electromagnetic field.

 

Suleyman Dasdag, Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag. The link between radiofrequencies emitted from wireless technologies and oxidative stress. Review Article. Pages 85-93.

  • The results of the studies we reviewed here indicated that mobile phones and similar equipment or radars can be thought as a factor, which cause oxidative stress. Even some of them claimed that oxidative stress originated from radiofrequencies can be resulted with DNA damage. For this reason one of the points to think on is relation between mobile phones and oxidative stress. However, more performance is necessary especially on human exposure studies.

 

Duygu Sahin, et al. “The 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G-mobile phone and the DNA oxidative damage in brain.”  Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 94-98.

  • The 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation and oxidative DNA damage in brain.
  • The effects of duration and tissue type to DNA damage.

 

İkinci, Tolga Mercantepe, et al. “Morphological and antioxidant impairments in the spinal cord of male offspring rats following exposure to a continuous 900 MHz electromagnetic field during early and mid-adolescence.”  Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 99-104.

  • Spinal cords of male rats were investigated following exposure to 900 MHz EMF.
  • Tissue malondialdehyde and glutathione levels increased in the EMF group.
  • Light microscopy revealed atrophy in the spinal cord in the EMF group.
  • TEM revealed invagination into the axon in the EMF group.
  • TEM revealed loss of myelin sheath integrity in the EMF group.

 

Ersan Odacı, et al. “Maternal exposure to a continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field provokes neuronal loss and pathological changes in cerebellum of 32-day-old female rat offspring.”  Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 105-110.

  • The female rat pup cerebellum was investigated following prenatal 900 MHz EMF exposure.
  • Total Purkinje cell numbers were estimated following prenatal 900 MHz EMF exposure.
  • Purkinje cell numbers were lower in the EMF group compared to the control and sham groups.
  • Pyknotic neurons with dark cytoplasm were observed in the EMF group.

 

Arda Esmekaya, et al. “Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.”  Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 111-115.

  • Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain.

 

Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag, et al. “Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats?”  Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 116-122.

  • In conclusion, long-term exposure to 2.4 GHz RF radiation (Wi-Fi) does not cause DNA damage of the organs investigated in this study except testes. The results of this study indicated that testes are more sensitive organ to RF radiation.

 

Bahriye Sırav and Nesrin Seyhan.Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood–brain barrier in male & female rats.”  Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 123-127.

  • Exposure to the pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation could lead to increase in the permeability of blood–brain barrier.
  • New researches are needed to discuss the effects of radio-frequency radiation on children.
  • Efforts have to be made to understand the mechanisms of the interaction of radio-frequency radiation and the central nervous system.

 

Göknur Güler, et al. “Neurodegenerative changes and apoptosis induced by intrauterine and extrauterine exposure of radiofrequency radiation.”  Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 128-133.

  • Fetal exposure to mobile phone radiation causes apoptosis and oxidative damage in brain.

 

Çelik, Mehmet Cemal Kahya and Mustafa Nazıroğlu. Oxidative stress of brain and liver is increased by Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposure of rats during pregnancy and the development of newborns.  Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 134-139.

  • Oxidative stress plays important role in biology of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)
  • 2.45 GHz increased oxidative stress in brain and liver pregnant rats and their newborns
  • Brain seems sensitive to oxidative injury in the development of newborns.

 

Redmayne, M. International policy and advisory response regarding children’s exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Electromagn Biol Med. 35.2 (2016): 176-185.

  • “This review of policy and advice regarding children’s RF-EMF exposure draws material from a wide variety of sources focusing on the current situation. This is not a systematic review, but aims to provide a representative cross-section of policy and advisory responses within set boundaries.”

 

Fernandez-Rodriguez, C.E., A.A.A. De Salles and Devra Lee Davis. “Dosimetric Simulations of Brain Absorption of Mobile Phone Radiation–The Relationship Between psSAR and Age.”  IEEE Access 3 (2015): 2425-2430.

  • “As children develop, they differ from adults in a number of important ways, including anatomy, metabolism, immune system, and the extent of myelination of the nervous system. As a consequence, equivalent exposures to radiation from mobile phones result in different doses to specific tissues in children compared with adults. Higher doses are likely to have more severe implications in the young. A young child’s skull is not only smaller and thinner than an adult’s, but also has dielectric characteristics closer to those of soft tissues, probably due to a higher water content. The young skull better matches the electromagnetic characteristics of the skin and brain. As a result, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations confirm field penetration and higher specific absorption rate (SAR) in deeper structures in the young brain. If the peak spatial SAR (psSAR) is modeled in the entire head, as current testing standards recommend, the results for adults and children are equivalent. Our anatomically based evaluations rely on FDTD simulations of different tissues within the brain and confirm that the psSAR in a child’s brain is higher than in an adult’s brain.”

 

Fernández-Rodríguez, Claudio Enrique, et al. “SAR simulations in SAM varying the dimensions, the distances and the age dependent dielectric parameters.” Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2015 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International. IEEE, 2015.

  • “Some SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) simulated results in SAM (Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin) are shown and discussed in this paper. The IEEE 1528 SAM dimensions and its filling liquid dielectric parameters are changed to simulate the different age characteristics. The distance between the cell phone and the SAM is modified too. It is observed that the peak spatial SAR increases with the increase of the dielectric parameters. A suggestion that the cell phone certification process should rely on both tests (SAR measurement and SAR simulations) is presented and it is recommended that the cell phones should be approved in all tests in order to receive certification.”

 

Morris, R.D., L.L. Morgan and D.L. Davis. “Children Absorb Higher Doses of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Mobile Phones Than Adults.” IEEE Access 3 (2015): 2379-2387

  • “In this critique of the 2014 review, EHT researchers found glaring internal inconsistencies and systematic errors in the presentation of data by Foster and Chou. They found summaries of the 23 studies, as quoted by Foster and Chou, support the opposite conclusion that at a fixed level of exposure, children absorb higher peak doses of radiation than adults.
  • The researchers point to a graphical Figure by Foster and Chou that purports to summarize results abstracted from individual studies. This graphic indicated 25% of the results showed higher peak doses in children, 30% showed little or no difference, and 46% showed higher peak doses in adults. Yet, when the authors of those same studies summarize their findings,  summaries quoted by Foster and Chou, most reached the opposite conclusion. “Contrary to what Foster and Chou assert, the majority of studies find that children do absorb greater doses of microwave radiation from mobile phones than adults,” said Morris, noting that 57% of studies concluded that doses are higher in children, while only 10% concluded that doses were higher in adults.”

 

Morgan, LL, A.B. Miller, A. Sasco and D.L. Davis. “Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (review).  Int J Oncol 46.5 (2015): 1865-71.

  • “The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use.”
  • “We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A ̔probable̓ human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). Additional data should be gathered on exposures to mobile and cordless phones, other WTDs, mobile phone base stations and Wi‑Fi routers to evaluate their impact on public health.
  • We advise that the as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) principle be adopted for uses of this technology, while a major cross‑disciplinary effort is generated to train researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of potential health impacts of RF‑EMF.”

 

Sergio M Racini, et al. “Simulation of psSAR associated with the use of laptop computers as a function of position in relation to the adult body.” BioEM Conference (2015)

BioEM2015 Poster Laptop psSAR.pdf

 

Lloyd Morgan, Santosh Kesari and Devra Lee Davis. Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure 2.4 (2014): 197-204.

  • “Computer simulation using MRI scans of children is the only possible way to determine the microwave radiation (MWR) absorbed in specific tissues in children. Children absorb more MWR than adults because their brain tissues are more absorbent, their skulls are thinner and their relative size is smaller. MWR from wireless devices has been declared a possible human carcinogen. Children are at greater risk than adults when exposed to any carcinogen. Because the average latency time between first exposure and diagnosis of a tumor can be decades, tumors induced in children may not be diagnosed until well into adulthood. The fetus is particularly vulnerable to MWR. MWR exposure can result in degeneration of the protective myelin sheath that surrounds brain neurons. MWR-emitting toys are being sold for use by young infants and toddlers. Digital dementia has been reported in school age children. A case study has shown when cellphones are placed in teenage girls’ bras multiple primary breast cancer develop beneath where the phones are placed. MWR exposure limits have remained unchanged for 19 years. All manufacturers of smartphones have warnings which describe the minimum distance at which phone must be kept away from users in order to not exceed the present legal limits for exposure to MWR. The exposure limit for laptop computers and tablets is set when devices are tested 20 cm away from the body. Belgium, France, India and other technologically sophisticated governments are passing laws and/or issuing warnings about children’s use of wireless devices.”

 

Davis DL, et al. “Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen.” Pathophysiology 20.2 (2013): 123-9.

  • “Given that treatment for a single case of brain cancer can cost between $100,000 for radiation therapy alone and up to $1 million depending on drug costs, resources to address this illness are already in short supply and not universally available in either developing or developed countries. Significant additional shortages in oncology services are expected at the current growth of cancer. No other environmental carcinogen has produced evidence of an increased risk in just one decade…If the increased brain cancer risk found in young users in these recent studies does apply at the global level, the gap between supply and demand for oncology services will continue to widen. Many nations, phone manufacturers, and expert groups, advise prevention in light of these concerns by taking the simple precaution of “distance” to minimize exposures to the brain and body. We note than brain cancer is the proverbial “tip of the iceberg”; the rest of the body is also showing effects other than cancers.”

 

Gandhi OP, et al. “Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.Electromagn Biol Med. 31.1 (2012): 34-51.

  • “The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child’s head’s absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull’s bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.”

 

Davis DL, A.B. Miller and A. Philips.Association of mobile phone use with adult brain cancer remains plausible.BMJ 344:e3083 (2012).

  • Letter in response to, “Mobile phone use and glioma risk: comparison of epidemiological study results with incidence trends in the United States.”

Research by Dr. Suleyman Kaplan

Gamze Altun, et al. “Protective effects of melatonin and omega-3 on the hippocampus and the cerebellum of adult Wistar albino rats exposed to electromagnetic fields.” Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure, 2017, In Press.

  • “Significant cell loss in the CA1 and CA2 regions of hippocampus and granular cell loss in the dentate gyrus were observed in the EMF group. In the CA3 region of the EMF + ω3, a significant cell increase was found compared to other groups (p < 0.01), as well as more granular cells in the cerebellum than the Cont, EMF + Mel (p < 0.01). Significant Purkinje cell loss was found in the cerebellum of EMF group compared to the other (p < 0.01). EMF + Mel and EMF + ω3 showed the same protection compared to the Cont (p > 0.05). The passive avoidance test showed that entrance latency into the dark compartment was significantly shorter in the EMF (p < 0.05). Additionally, EMF had a higher serum enzyme activity than the other groups (p < 0.01).”
  • “In conclusion, our analyses confirm that EMF may lead to cellular damage in the hippocampus and the cerebellum, and that Mel and ω3 may have neuroprotective effects.”

 

Kaplan, Suleyman and Devra Davis. “Controversies on Electromagnetic Fields in Neurobiology of Organisms.” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, Special Issue 75.B (2016): 41-140.

  • This special issue of the Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy edited by Suleyman Kaplan, PhD and Devra Davis, PhD MPH contains five research reviews and five papers on the effects of EMF’s on the brain and nervous system.

 

Odaci E, O. Bas  and S. Kaplan. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological and histopathological study. Brain Research 1238 (2008): 224–9.

  • Prenatal exposure caused a progressive postnatal decline in the number of granule cells of dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of offspring.

Research by Scientific Advisors Dr. Anthony Miller, Dr. Annie Sasco & Lloyd Morgan

Morgan, LL, A.B. Miller, A. Sasco and D.L. Davis. “Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (review).  Int J Oncol 46.5 (2015): 1865-71.

  • “The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use.”
  • “We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A ̔probable̓ human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). Additional data should be gathered on exposures to mobile and cordless phones, other WTDs, mobile phone base stations and Wi‑Fi routers to evaluate their impact on public health.
  • We advise that the as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) principle be adopted for uses of this technology, while a major cross‑disciplinary effort is generated to train researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of potential health impacts of RF‑EMF.”

 

Morris, R.D., L.L. Morgan and D.L. Davis. “Children Absorb Higher Doses of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Mobile Phones Than Adults.” IEEE Access 3 (2015): 2379-2387

  • Foster and Chou (2014) reviewed published studies that used computer models of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to estimate and compare the tissue dose rate in the heads of children and adults using mobile phones. Their review confuses exposure with absorption, and the study results conclude erroneously that children are not more exposed than adults.
  • This study shows that the Foster and Chou review was not executed systematically. There are discrepancies between text summaries and the graphed ratios of child: adult peak special specific absorption rate, in line with the author’s hypothesis that children have the same or lower tissue dose than adults. Even the underlying precept of their review is flawed, as the results of deterministic models are treated as random variables.
  • This paper discusses the differences between exposure and tissue absorption and re-examines the results presented by Foster and Chou. Based upon this review, the authors suggest an alternative interpretation of the published literature.

 

Lloyd Morgan, Santosh Kesari and Devra Lee Davis. Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure 2.4 (2014): 197-204.

  • “Computer simulation using MRI scans of children is the only possible way to determine the microwave radiation (MWR) absorbed in specific tissues in children. Children absorb more MWR than adults because their brain tissues are more absorbent, their skulls are thinner and their relative size is smaller. MWR from wireless devices has been declared a possible human carcinogen. Children are at greater risk than adults when exposed to any carcinogen. Because the average latency time between first exposure and diagnosis of a tumor can be decades, tumors induced in children may not be diagnosed until well into adulthood. The fetus is particularly vulnerable to MWR. MWR exposure can result in degeneration of the protective myelin sheath that surrounds brain neurons. MWR-emitting toys are being sold for use by young infants and toddlers. Digital dementia has been reported in school age children. A case study has shown when cellphones are placed in teenage girls’ bras multiple primary breast cancer develop beneath where the phones are placed. MWR exposure limits have remained unchanged for 19 years. All manufacturers of smartphones have warnings which describe the minimum distance at which phone must be kept away from users in order to not exceed the present legal limits for exposure to MWR. The exposure limit for laptop computers and tablets is set when devices are tested 20 cm away from the body. Belgium, France, India and other technologically sophisticated governments are passing laws and/or issuing warnings about children’s use of wireless devices.”

 

Davis DL, A.B. Miller and A. Philips.Association of mobile phone use with adult brain cancer remains plausible.BMJ 344:e3083 (2012).

  • Letter in response to, “Mobile phone use and glioma risk: comparison of epidemiological study results with incidence trends in the United States.”

Research by Scientific Advisor Dr. Om Gandhi

Gandhi, Om. Yes the Children are more exposed to radio-frequency energy from mobile telephones than adults. IEEE Spectrum, vol. 3, 2015, pp. 985-8.

  • In this paper we present arguments based on physics that the main reason for higher exposure of children (also women and men with smaller heads and likely thinner pinnae) to radiofrequency energy from mobile phones is the closer placement of the cell phone radiation source by several millimeters to the tissues of the head, e.g. the brain.

 

Gandhi OP, et al. “Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.Electromagn Biol Med. 31.1 (2012): 34-51.

  • “The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child’s head’s absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull’s bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.”

 

Gandhi, O.P., G. Lazzi, and C. M. Furse. “Electromagnetic absorption in the human head and neck for mobile telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz.” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 44, no. 10, 1996, pp. 1884-97.

  • Authors used the finite-difference time-domain method and a new millimeter-resolution anatomically based model of the human to study electromagnetic energy coupled to the head due to mobile telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz.
  • Assuming reduced dimensions characteristic of today’s mobile telephones, the authors have obtained SAR distributions for two different lengths of monopole antennas of lengths /spl lambda//4 and 3/spl lambda//8 for a model of the adult male and reduced-scale models of 10- and 5-year-old children and find that peak one-voxel and 1-g SARs are larger for the smaller models of children, particularly at 835 MHz. Homogeneous models(instead of anatomically realistic heterogeneous models) on the SAR distributions are shown to grossly overestimate both the peak 1-voxel and 1-g SARs.
  • The authors showed that 5-year-old and 10-year-old children have higher psSARs (peak spatial specific absorption rate) than adults.

Research by Scientific Advisor Dr. Mary Redmayne

Johansson, Olle and Mary Redmayne. “Exacerbation of demyelinating syndrome after exposure to wireless modem with public hotspot.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 35.4 (2016): 393-7.

  • “In August 2003, 48-year-old JS of Colorado, USA, a fitness therapist and sports nutritionist, contracted neuroinvasive West Nile virus which left her with disabilities due to spinal axonal damage.In August 2014, she suddenly developed symptoms very much like her acute West Nile infection 11 years ago, including focal seizures, ataxia, vertigo and headaches. Her blood count looked normal so there was no obvious infection. What struck her as odd was that when she left her apartment for any length of time, the symptoms stopped. She found out that a new type of wireless modem, enabled for both personal use and functioning as a public hotspot designed to reach up to 100 m, had been installed in the flat under hers.Her neighbor replaced the modem with a router without the hotspot feature. After that, the seizures stopped immediately, and the other symptoms faded gradually, after which she was fine and again could sleep well. Later, when another activated hotspot was installed in an adjacent flat, JS once again noticed symptoms.
  • “A possible association between electrohypersensitivity, myelin integrity and exposure to low-intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) typical in the modern world has recently been proposed. Since the West Nile virus attacks both the nerve cells and the glial ones, one explanation to the above observed case effects is that the initial virus attack and the wireless modem’s RF-EMF affect the nervous system through the very same, or similar, avenues, and maybe both via the oligodendrocytes.”

 

Redmayne, M. International policy and advisory response regarding children’s exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 2015.

  • Over twenty countries and municipalities have issued policy or advisories on reducing exposure to electromagnetic fields.
  • There are a wide variety of approaches which I have categorized and tabulated ranging from ICNIRP/IEEE guidelines and “no extra precautions needed” to precautionary or scientific much lower maxima and extensive advice to minimize RF-EMF exposure, ban advertising/sale to children, and add exposure information to packaging. Precautionary standards use what I term an exclusion principle. The wide range of policy approaches can be confusing for parents/carers of children. Some consensus among advisory organizations would be helpful acknowledging that, despite extensive research, the highly complex nature of both RF-EMF and the human body, and frequent technological updates, means simple assurance of long-term safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs’ exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children.”

 

Redmayne M, and Olle Johansson.Radiofrequency exposure in young and old: different sensitivities in light of age-relevant natural differences.Rev Environ Health 30.4 (2015): 323-35.

  • “Our environment is now permeated by anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, and individuals of all ages are exposed for most of each 24 h period from transmitting devices. Despite claims that children are more likely to be vulnerable than healthy adults to unwanted effects of this exposure, there has been no recent examination of this, nor of comparative risk to the elderly or ill. We sought to clarify whether research supports the claim of increased risk in specific age-groups. First, we identified the literature which has explored age-specific pathophysiological impacts of RF-EMR. Natural life-span changes relevant to these different impacts provides context for our review of the selected literature, followed by discussion of health and well-being implications. We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy.”

 

Redmayne M and Olle Johansson. “Could myelin damage from radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure help explain the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity? A review of the evidence.J Toxicol Environ Health B 17.5 (2014): 247-58.

  • “This review outlines the development of myelin through life, and then considers the evidence for an association between myelin integrity and exposure to low-intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) typical in the modern world. In RF-EMF peer-reviewed literature examining relevant impacts such as myelin sheath, multiple sclerosis, and other myelin-related diseases, cellular examination was included.”
  • “Overall, evidence from in vivo and in vitro and epidemiological studies suggests an association between RF-EMF exposure and either myelin deterioration or a direct impact on neuronal conduction, which may account for many electrohypersensitivity symptoms. The most vulnerable are likely to be those in utero through to at least mid-teen years, as well as ill and elderly individuals.”

 

Redmayne M, E. Smith and M.J. Abramson.The relationship between adolescents’ well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study.Environ Health 12.90 (2013).

  • There were more statistically significant associations (36%) than could be expected by chance (5%). Several were dose-dependent relationships. To safeguard young people’s well-being, we suggest limiting their use of cellphones and cordless phones to less than 15 minutes daily, and employing a speaker-phone device for longer daily use. We recommend parental measures are taken to prevent young people being woken by their cellphones.”

 

Redmayne M.New Zealand adolescents’ cellphone and cordless phone user-habits: are they at increased risk of brain tumours already? A cross-sectional study.Environ Health 12:5 (2013).

  • “While cellphones were very popular for entertainment and social interaction via texting, cordless phones were most popular for calls. If their use continued at the reported rate, many would be at increased risk of specific brain tumours by their mid-teens, based on findings of the Interphone and Hardell-group studies.”

Research By Alvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles and Claudio R. Fernández

Sergio M Racini, Alvaro de Salles, Sergio LS Severo, Johan LT Garzon, Robert D. Morris & Devra Davis “Simulation of psSAR associated with the use of laptop computers as a function of position in relation to the adult body.” BioEM Conference (2015)

BioEM2015 Poster Laptop psSAR.pdf

 

Ferreira, Juliana Borges, and Álvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles. “Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet user’s.” Skin38 (2015): 1-464.

  • “The psSAR simulations in heterogeneous models (adult and child) show higher levels in the children model. The possible reasons for the higher SAR estimated in the child head model compared with adult model can be due to different reasons (e.g. thinner skull, higher dielectric parameters, smaller dimensions, etc.).”
  • “It is very important to remark that the recommendations and the standards usually adopted in different countries only consider the health effects of short time of exposure. Adults, adolescents and children may use these devices for many hours a day, many days a week and many weeks each year. Then these exposures should be reduced in order to reduce the health risks and the standards should be revised again since the last review was many years ago.”

 

Ferreira, Juliana Borges, Álvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles, and Claudio Enrique Fernández-Rodriguez. “SAR simulations of EMF exposure due to tablet operation close to the user’s body.” Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2015 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International. IEEE, 2015.

  • This paper shows an analysis of the interaction of the electromagnetic field generated by a tablet with three different models of human heads: a homogeneous model Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) and two heterogeneous models: an adult man and a child. The assessing dosimetric parameters used are the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) computed by SEMCAD X. The distance between the tablet and the head models varies from 50 mm to 200 mm. The SAR decreases with the distance. The higher SAR values were obtained for SAM while the smaller for the adult. All the results are below the safety recommendations from the International Commission Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Federal Communications Committee (FCC).

 

Fernández-Rodríguez, Claudio Enrique, et al. “SAR simulations in SAM varying the dimensions, the distances and the age dependent dielectric parameters.” Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2015 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International. IEEE, 2015.

  • “Some SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) simulated results in SAM (Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin) are shown and discussed in this paper. The IEEE 1528 SAM dimensions and its filling liquid dielectric parameters are changed to simulate the different age characteristics. The distance between the cell phone and the SAM is modified too. It is observed that the peak spatial SAR increases with the increase of the dielectric parameters. A suggestion that the cell phone certification process should rely on both tests (SAR measurement and SAR simulations) is presented and it is recommended that the cell phones should be approved in all tests in order to receive certification.”

 

Fernández, Claudio R., et al. “Comparison of electromagnetic absorption characteristics in the head of adult and a children for 1800 MHz mobile phones.” Microwave and Optoelectronics, 2005 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Conference on. IEEE, 2005.

  • The specific absorption rate (SAR) produced by mobile phones in the head of children is simulated using an algorithm based in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. A new model based on a 10 year old child computed tomographic images was used. The electromagnetic parameters were fitted to this age. The results are compared to the SAR calculated in the head of adults. Comparison also were made with SAR calculated in the children model when using adult human electromagnetic parameters values. It is shown that in similar conditions, the SAR calculated for the children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10 years old child model, values around 80% higher than those for adults were obtained.

 

Ferreira, Amâncio R., et al. “Ultra high frequency electromagnetic field effects in erythrocytes micronuclei frequency and birth rate of rats prenatally irradiated.” Microwave and Optoelectronics, 2005 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Conference on. IEEE, 2005.

  • “An in vivo mammalian cytogenetic test, the micronuclei (MN) assay, was used to investigate the occurrence of genetic damage in rat offspring erythrocytes exposed to a non-thermal electromagnetic field (834 MHz, 0.6 – 1.4 W/kg) from a cellular phone during their embryogenesis. The irradiated group showed a significant increase of MN frequency. The offspring number has not been significantly different between the irradiated and sham groups. It could be concluded that selected UHF-EMF under the applied conditions direct or indirectly induced genotoxic response in hematopoiesis during the embryogenesis after whole-body exposure.”

 

De Salles, Alvaro A., Giovani Bulla, and Claudio E. Fernández Rodriguez. “Electromagnetic absorption in the head of adults and children due to mobile phone operation close to the head.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 25.4 (2006): 349-360.

  • “The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) produced by mobile phones in the head of adults and children is simulated using an algorithm based on the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Realistic models of the child and adult head are used. The electromagnetic parameters are fitted to these models. Comparison also are made with the SAR calculated in the children model when using adult human electromagnetic parameters values. Microstrip (or patch) antennas and quarter wavelength monopole antennas are used in the simulations. The frequencies used to feed the antennas are 1850 MHz and 850 MHz. The SAR results are compared with the available international recommendations. It is shown that under similar conditions, the 1g-SAR calculated for children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10-year old child model, SAR values higher than 60% than those for adults are obtained.”

 

Ferreira, Amâncio R., et al. “Oxidative stress effects on the central nervous system of rats after acute exposure to ultra high frequency electromagnetic fields.” Bioelectromagnetics 27.6 (2006): 487-493.

  • “We have investigated the effect of acute UHF-EMF exposure on non-enzymatic antioxidant defense and lipid and protein oxidative damage in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus.”
  • “No changes in lipid and protein damage, and also in non-enzymatic defense were found in frontal cortex or hippocampus. These results suggest that acute UHF-EMF exposure is not able to produce detectable oxidative stress in rats from any age tested. However, more tests using a longer period of exposure and evaluating other tissues are necessary to ensure that there is no health risk associated with the use of mobile phones.”

 

Alvaro A. de Salles, Giovani Bulla and Claudio E. Fernández Rodriguez. “Electromagnetic Absorption in the Head of Adults and Children Due to Mobile Phone Operation Close to the Head.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 25.4 (2006): 349-360.

  • “The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) produced by mobile phones in the head of adults and children is simulated using an algorithm based on the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Realistic models of the child and adult head are used. The electromagnetic parameters are fitted to these models. Comparison also are made with the SAR calculated in the children model when using adult human electromagnetic parameters values. Microstrip (or patch) antennas and quarter wavelength monopole antennas are used in the simulations. The frequencies used to feed the antennas are 1850 MHz and 850 MHz. The SAR results are compared with the available international recommendations. It is shown that under similar conditions, the 1g-SAR calculated for children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10-year old child model, SAR values higher than 60% than those for adults are obtained.”

 

Amâncio R. Ferreira, et al. “Oxidative stress effects on the central nervous system of rats after acute exposure to ultra high frequency electromagnetic fields.” Biolelctromagnetics 27.6 (2006): 487-493.  

  • “Mobile telephones and their base stations are an important source of ultra high frequency electromagnetic fields (UHF-EMFs; 800–1800 MHz) and their utilization is increasing all over the world. Epidemiological studies have suggested that low energy UHF-EMFs may have biological effects, such as changes in oxidative metabolism after exposure. Therefore, we have investigated the effect of acute UHF-EMF exposure on non-enzymatic antioxidant defense and lipid and protein oxidative damage in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus. We have used malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl assays to assess lipid and protein oxidative damages, respectively. No changes in lipid and protein damage, and also in non-enzymatic defense were found in frontal cortex or hippocampus. These results suggest that acute UHF-EMF exposure is not able to produce detectable oxidative stress in rats from any age tested. However, more tests using a longer period of exposure and evaluating other tissues are necessary to ensure that there is no health risk associated with the use of mobile phones.”

 

Amâncio Romanelli Ferreira, et al. “Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring.” Life Science 80.1 (2006): 43-50.

  • “Mobile telephones and their base stations are an important ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field (UHF-EMF) source and their utilization is increasing all over the world. Epidemiological studies suggested that low energy UHF-EMF emitted from a cellular telephone may cause biological effects, such as DNA damage and changes on oxidative metabolism. An in vivo mammalian cytogenetic test, the micronucleus (MN) assay, was used to investigate the occurrence of chromosomal damage in erythrocytes from rat offspring exposed to a non-thermal UHF-EMF from a cellular phone during their embryogenesis; the irradiated group showed a significant increase in MN occurrence. In order to investigate if UHF-EMF could also alter oxidative parameters in the peripheral blood and in the liver – an important hematopoietic tissue in rat embryos and newborns – we also measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes, quantified total sulfhydryl content, protein carbonyl groups, thiobarbituric acid-reactive species and total non-enzymatic antioxidant defense. No significant differences were found in any oxidative parameter of offspring blood and liver. The average number of pups in each litter has also not been significantly altered. Our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, UHF-EMF is able to induce a genotoxic response in hematopoietic tissue during the embryogenesis through an unknown mechanism.”

 

Claudio R. Fernández, Mateus Bonadiman, Alvaro A. A. De Salles. “FDTD simulations and measurements for cell phone with planar antennas.” Annales des Telecommunications 59.9-10 (2004): 1012-1030.

  • The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (fdtd) method is used to calculate the cellular phone far and near field and the specific absorption rate (sar) in the user’s head. The conventional λ/4 monopole and a simple planar antenna are simulated and measured. The simulated results are in good agreement with those measured for thevswr and for the radiation patterns on the horizontal and vertical planes. These results show that significant improvements in the antenna radiation efficiency and in the reduction of the sar in the head are obtained when planar antennas are used.

 

Alvaro. A. A. de Salles, Claudio R. Femandez and Mateus Bonadiman. “FDTD Simulations and Measurements on Planar Antennas for Mobile Phones.” IEEE, Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (2003).

  • “The design, simulation and measurements of a rectangular microstrip (or “patch”) antenna at 1.9 GHz are summarized in this paper. The Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) of this antenna and its bandwidth are simulated using the software Ansoft Ensemble/spl trade/. Also, the horizontal plane radiation pattern and the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the user’s head, as well as the near and the far field are simulated using an algorithm based in the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Measurements of the VSWR and of the radiation patterns on the horizontal and vertical planes are also shown. It can be observed that this type of antennas can be an adequate alternative to improve the performance of mobile phones and to reduce the non ionizing energy absorbed in the user’s head, reducing therefore health risks.”

 

de Salles, Alvaro AA, C. R. Ferndadez, and M. Bonadiman. “FDTD simulations and measurements on planar antennas for mobile phones.” Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference, 2003. IMOC 2003. Proceedings of the 2003 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International. Vol. 2. IEEE, 2003.

  • “The design, simulation and measurements of a rectangular microstrip (or “patch”) antenna at 1.9 GHz are summarized in this paper. The Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) of this antenna and its bandwidth are simulated using the software Ansoft Ensemble/spl trade/. Also, the horizontal plane radiation pattern and the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the user’s head, as well as the near and the far field are simulated using an algorithm based in the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Measurements of the VSWR and of the radiation patterns on the horizontal and vertical planes are also shown. It can be observed that this type of antennas can be an adequate alternative to improve the performance of mobile phones and to reduce the non ionizing energy absorbed in the user’s head, reducing therefore health risks.”

 

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