also known as Microwave Sickness
The human body normally functions by using natural electromagnetic energy and humans are electromagnetic beings. Thus we are affected by electromagnetic fields in our environment. People worldwide are reporting health issues and symptoms after exposures to electromagnetic fields.
“Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleep problems, depression, a lack of energy, fatigue, and flu-like symptoms…The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of high EMF exposure at home and at the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure).” – EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses Belyaev 2016
SYMPTOMS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSITIVITY
Headaches, Sleeping Problems, Concentration and Memory problems, Nosebleeds, Extreme thirst, Bad allergies, Unexplained skin rashes, Digestive Problems, including stomach pains, constipation, diarrhea, Neurological problems including anxiety and unexplained feelings of stress, Heart Palpitations, Strong fatigue, Appetite Loss
5th Paris Appeal Congress, 18th of May, 2015 Royal Academy of Medicine, Belgium
Environmental idiopathic intolerance: what role for EMFs and multiple chemicals?
Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)
Watch videos of lectures by the top experts in the field
In the video below Dr. Magda Havas lectures at National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences May 9, 2016. “Electrosmog, the missing link as it relates to cancer, reproductive problems and electrohypersensitivity.”
Doctor’s Working Draft Summary
PUBLISHED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON EHS
Heuser, G. and S.A. Heuser. “Functional brain MRI in patients complaining of electrohypersensitivity after long term exposure to electromagnetic fields.” Rev Environ Health (2017). doi: 10.1515/reveh-2017-0014.
- Ten adult patients with electromagnetic hypersensitivity underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans.
- All ten patients had abnormal functional MRI brain scans. The abnormality was often described as hyper connectivity of the anterior component of the default mode in the medial orbitofrontal area. Other abnormalities were usually found. Regular MRI studies of the brain were mostly unremarkable in these patients.
- “We propose that functional MRI studies should become a diagnostic aid when evaluating a patient who claims electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and has otherwise normal studies. Interestingly, the differential diagnosis for the abnormalities seen on the fMRI includes head injury. It turns out that many of our patients indeed had a history of head injury which was then followed sometime later by the development of EHS. Many of our patients also had a history of exposure to potentially neurotoxic chemicals, especially mold. Head injury and neurotoxic chemical exposure may make a patient more vulnerable to develop EHS.”
Marino AA, Kim PY, Frilot Ii C. Trigeminal neurons detect cellphone radiation: Thermal or nonthermal is not the question. Electromagn Biol Med. 2016 Jul 15:1-9.
- Cellphone electromagnetic radiation produces temperature alterations in facial skin. We hypothesized that the radiation-induced heat was transduced by warmth-sensing trigeminal neurons, as evidenced by changes in cognitive processing of the afferent signals. Ten human volunteers were exposed on the right side of the face to 1 GHz radiation in the absence of acoustic, tactile, and low-frequency electromagnetic stimuli produced by cellphones.
- Results: Trigeminal neurons were capable of detecting temperature changes far below skin temperature increases caused by cellphone radiation. Simulated cellphone radiation affected brain electrical activity associated with nonlinear cognitive processing of radiation-induced thermal afferent signals. Radiation standards for cellphones based on a thermal/nonthermal binary distinction do not prevent neurophysiological consequences of cellphone radiation.
- The public-health significance of chronic and subacute exposure to cellphone radiation is under scrutiny (Chu et al., 2011; Coureau et al., 2014; Hardell et al., 2013; Szykjowska et al., 2014), and marked disagreements exist among the stakeholders as regards the public-health risks. Our work is directly pertinent to one aspect of the contentiousness, the assumption that there exists a binary distinction between so-called thermal and nonthermal biological effects associated with cellphone radiation. In that perspective, cellphone radiation is regarded as inherently nonthermal and consequently unable to cause any biological effects, health related or otherwise. The results reported here indicated that a standard cellphone radiating at a level well within approved emission limits will necessarily produce a physiological thermal effect triggered by heat deposited in the user’s facial skin. Consequently, cellphone safety cannot validly be predicated on the absence of thermal effects because they are never absent.
Belpomme D, Campagnac C, Irigaray P., Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder. Rev Environ Health, vol. 30, no. 4, 2015, pp. 251-71.
Igor Belyaev, Amy Dean, Horst Eger, Gerhard Hubmann, Reinhold Jandrisovits, Markus Kern, Michael Kundi, Hanns Moshammer, Piero Lercher, Kurt Müller, Gerd Oberfeld*, Peter Ohnsorge, Peter Pelzmann, Claus Scheingraber and Roby Thill, EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses, Rev Environ Health 2016. Read the full PDF
- “On the one hand, there is strong evidence that long-term exposure to certain EMFs is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer’s disease, and male infertility. On the other hand, the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law.”
- “We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleep problems, depression, a lack of energy, fatigue, and flu-like symptoms. A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to making the diagnosis.”
- “The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of high EMF exposure at home and at the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear.
- “There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the range of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is so large. Based on our current understanding, a treatment approach that minimizes the adverse effects of peroxynitrite – as has been increasingly used in the treatment of multisystem illnesses – works best. This EMF Guideline gives an overview of the current knowledge regarding EMF-related health risks and provides recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and accessibility measures of EHS to improve and restore individual health outcomes as well as for the development of strategies for prevention.”
Belpomme D, Campagnac C, Irigaray P., Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Dec 1;30(4):251-71. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0027.
- Much of the controversy over the causes of electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) lies in the absence of both recognized clinical criteria and objective biomarkers for widely accepted diagnosis. Since 2009, we have prospectively investigated, clinically and biologically, 1216 consecutive EHS and/or MCS-self reporting cases, in an attempt to answer both questions. We report here our preliminary data, based on 727 evaluable of 839 enrolled cases: 521 (71.6%) were diagnosed with EHS, 52 (7.2%) with MCS, and 154 (21.2%) with both EHS and MCS. Two out of three patients with EHS and/or MCS were female; mean age (years) was 47. As inflammation appears to be a key process resulting from electromagnetic field (EMF) and/or chemical effects on tissues, and histamine release is potentially a major mediator of inflammation, we systematically measured histamine in the blood of patients. Near 40% had a increase in histaminemia (especially when both conditions were present), indicating a chronic inflammatory response can be detected in these patients. Oxidative stress is part of inflammation and is a key contributor to damage and response. Nitrotyrosin, a marker of both peroxynitrite (ONOO°-) production and opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was increased in 28% the cases. Protein S100B, another marker of BBB opening was increased in 15%. Circulating autoantibodies against O-myelin were detected in 23%, indicating EHS and MCS may be associated with autoimmune response. Confirming animal experiments showing the increase of Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 chaperone proteins under the influence of EMF, we found increased Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 in 33% of the patients. As most patients reported chronic insomnia and fatigue, we determined the 24 h urine 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS)/creatinin ratio and found it was decreased (<0.8) in all investigated cases. Finally, considering the self-reported symptoms of EHS and MCS, we serially measured the brain blood flow (BBF) in the temporal lobes of each case with pulsed cerebral ultrasound computed tomosphygmography. Both disorders were associated with hypoperfusion in the capsulothalamic area, suggesting that the inflammatory process involve the limbic system and the thalamus. Our data strongly suggest that EHS and MCS can be objectively characterized and routinely diagnosed by commercially available simple tests. Both disorders appear to involve inflammation-related hyper-histaminemia, oxidative stress, autoimmune response, capsulothalamic hypoperfusion and BBB opening, and a deficit in melatonin metabolic availability; suggesting a risk of chronic neurodegenerative disease. Finally the common co-occurrence of EHS and MCS strongly suggests a common pathological mechanism.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity – an increasing challenge to the medical profession. Reviews on Environ Health. 2015 Sep 15.
- CONCLUSION: It seems necessary to give an International Classification of Diseases to EHS to get it accepted as EMF-related health problems. The increasing exposure to RF-EMF in schools is of great concern and needs better attention. Longer-term health effects are unknown. Parents, teachers, and school boards have the responsibility to protect children from unnecessary exposure.
Sage C. The implications of non-linear biological oscillations on human electrophysiology for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). Rev Environ Health. 2015 Sep 12.
- Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) can be a precursor to, or linked with, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) . Similarity of chemical biomarkers is seen in both conditions [histamines, markers of oxidative stress, auto-antibodies, heat shock protein (HSP), melatonin markers and leakage of the blood-brain barrier]. Low intensity pulsed microwave activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is postulated as a mechanism of action for non-thermal health effects.
Mortazavi G, Mortazavi SM. Increased mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after exposure to electromagnetic fields as a potential hazard for hypersensitive people and pregnant women. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Dec 1;30(4):287-92. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0017.
- Over the past decades, the use of common sources of electromagnetic fields such as Wi-Fi routers and mobile phones has been increased enormously all over the world. There is ongoing concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields can lead to adverse health effects. It has recently been shown that even low doses of mercury are capable of causing toxicity. Therefore, efforts are initiated to phase down or eliminate the use of mercury amalgam in dental restorations. Increased release of mercury from dental amalgam restorations after exposure to electromagnetic fields such as those generated by MRI and mobile phones has been reported by our team and other researchers. We have recently shown that some of the papers which reported no increased release of mercury after MRI, may have some methodological errors. Although it was previously believed that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam cannot be hazardous, new findings indicate that mercury, even at low doses, may cause toxicity. Based on recent epidemiological findings, it can be claimed that the safety of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings is questionable. Therefore, as some individuals tend to be hypersensitive to the toxic effects of mercury, regulatory authorities should re-assess the safety of exposure to electromagnetic fields in individuals with amalgam restorations. On the other hand, we have reported that increased mercury release after exposure to electromagnetic fields may be risky for the pregnant women. It is worth mentioning that as a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels has been found in some studies, our findings regarding the effect of exposure to electromagnetic fields on the release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings lead us to this conclusion that pregnant women with dental amalgam fillings should limit their exposure to electromagnetic fields to prevent toxic effects of mercury in their fetuses. Based on these findings, as infants and children are more vulnerable to mercury exposures, and as some individuals are routinely exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields, we possibly need a paradigm shift in evaluating the health effects of amalgam fillings.
De Luca et al., Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention, Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2014, no. 924184, 2014.
- Growing numbers of “electromagnetic hypersensitive” (EHS) people worldwide self-report severely disabling, multiorgan, non-specific symptoms when exposed to low-dose electromagnetic radiations, often associated with symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and/or other environmental “sensitivity-related illnesses” (SRI). This cluster of chronic inflammatory disorders still lacks validated pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic biomarkers, and management guidelines. We hypothesized that SRI, not being merely psychogenic, may share organic determinants of impaired detoxification of common physic-chemical stressors. Based on our previous MCS studies, we tested a panel of 12 metabolic blood redox-related parameters and of selected drug-metabolizing-enzyme gene polymorphisms, on 153 EHS, 147 MCS, and 132 control Italians, confirming MCS altered –0.0001) glutathione-(GSH), GSH-peroxidase/S-transferase, and catalase erythrocyte activities. We first described comparable—though milder—metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. Severe depletion of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids with increased ω6/ω3 ratio was confirmed in MCS, but not in EHS. We also identified significantly altered distribution-versus-control of the CYP2C19*1/*2 SNP variants in EHS, and a 9.7-fold increased risk (OR: 95% C.–74.5) of developing EHS for the haplotype (null)GSTT1 + (null)GSTM1 variants. Altogether, results on MCS and EHS strengthen our proposal to adopt this blood metabolic/genetic biomarkers’ panel as suitable diagnostic tool for SRI.
Redmayne, M. and O. Johansson. “Radiofrequency exposure in young and old: different sensitivities in light of age-relevant natural differences.“ Rev Environ Health, vol. 30, no. 4, 2015, pp. 323-35.
- Our environment is now permeated by anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, and individuals of all ages are exposed for most of each 24 h period from transmitting devices. Despite claims that children are more likely to be vulnerable than healthy adults to unwanted effects of this exposure, there has been no recent examination of this, nor of comparative risk to the elderly or ill. We sought to clarify whether research supports the claim of increased risk in specific age-groups. First, we identified the literature which has explored age-specific pathophysiological impacts of RF-EMR. Natural life-span changes relevant to these different impacts provides context for our review of the selected literature, followed by discussion of health and well-being implications. We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an ageing population means there are economic implications for public health and policy.
Tuengler A, von Klitzing L., Hypothesis on how to measure electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 32, no. 3, 3013, pp. 281-90.
- Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is an ill-defined term to describe the fact that people who experience health symptoms in the vicinity of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) regard them as causal for their complaints. Up to now most scientists assume a psychological cause for the suffering of electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals. This paper addresses reasons why most provocation studies could not find any association between EMF exposure and EHS and presents a hypothesis on diagnosis and differentiation of this condition. Simultaneous recordings of heart rate variability, microcirculation and electric skin potentials are used for classification of EHS. Thus, it could be possible to distinguish “genuine” electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals from those who suffer from other conditions.
Juutilainen, Jukka, Timo Kumlin, and Jonne Naarala. “Do extremely low frequency magnetic fields enhance the effects of environmental carcinogens? A meta-analysis of experimental studies.” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 82, no. 1, 2006, pp. 1-12.
- “This paper is a meta-analysis of data from in vitro studies and short-term animal studies that have combined extremely low frequency magnetic fields with known carcinogens or other toxic physical or chemical agents.”
- “The majority of the studies reviewed were positive, suggesting that magnetic fields do interact with other chemical and physical exposures. Publication bias is unlikely to explain the findings. Interestingly, a nonlinear ‘dose-response’ was found, showing a minimum percentage of positive studies at fields between 1 and 3 mT.”
- “Confirmed adverse effects even at 100 μT would have implications for risk assessment and management, including the need to reconsider the exposure limits for magnetic fields. There is an obvious need for further studies on combined effects with magnetic fields.”
Rea, William J., et al. “Electromagnetic field sensitivity.” Journal of Bioelectricity 10.1-2 (1991): 241-256.
- A double-blind study showing that EHS is a repeatable, physiological response of the autonomic nervous system to EMFs when provocation studies are done in a controlled, shielded environment and subjects are exposed to the frequencies that they are sensitive to. 16 EHS subjects exposed to frequencies they were sensitive to showed a 100% response rate during two rechallenges.
- “The principal signs and symptoms produced were neurological (tingling, sleepiness, headache, dizziness, unconsciousness), musculoskeletal (pain, tightness, spasm, fibrillation), cardiovascular (palpitation, flushing, tachycardia, edema), oral/respiratory (pressure in earss tooth pains, tightness in chest, dyspnea), gastrointestinal (nausea, belching), ocular (burning), and dermal (itching, burning prickling pain) (Table 4). Most reactions were neurological.”
Dr. Marino’s Research summaries that looks at the changes in brain electrical activity that were caused by EMF transduction. The mathematical method developed is called Analysis of Brain Recurrence (ABR), is an algorithm that runs on a computer and extracts physiological information from the EEG.
This study created amputee-like conditions in rodents and found that exposures to cell-tower-like radiation induced pain responses- a strong –blinded–indicator of an underlying biological process. Adult Wistar rats were used in this study where the RF EMF stimulus was attenuated to deliver an average power density equal to that measured at 39 m from a local cell phone tower.
“Conclusion: Our animal study supports anecdotal reports indicating that RF EMFs serve as a trigger for post-neurotomy pain. Further, it suggests that those who have suffered a nerve injury or other types of peripheral nerve pathology may be prone to RF EMF-induced pain.
SCIENTIFIC SLIDE PRESENTATIONS ABOUT ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSITIVITY
5th Paris Appeal Congress, 18th of May, 2015, Royal Academy of Medicine, Belgium, Abstracts from the IDIOPATHIC ENVIRONMENTAL INTOLERANCE: WHAT ROLE FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CHEMICALS? Download it.
Electrohypersensitive individuals (EHS) in the digital world – a disabled population, deprived of home, work and basic rights, Slideshare, Published on Jan 26, 2016 by Dr. Yael Stein MD, Presented at: UNESCO Chair in Bioethics 10th World Conference, Jan 6-8/ 2015. Co-authors – Dr. Mbong Eta Ngole, Dr. Gaurav Aggarwal, and Dr. Joel M Moskowitz See the Slidshare here
ELECTROHYPERSENSITIVITY: INPUT OF MECHANISTIC STUDIES WITH LOW-INTENSITY RADIOFREQUENCY AND EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELCTROMAGNETIC FIELDS
BY Igor Belyaev Laboratory of Radiobiology, Institute of Cancer Research, Slovak Academy of Science Bratislava, Slovak Republic Laboratory of Radiobiology, Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia Download here.
Dr. Olle Johansson and Dr. Isaac Jamieson attended the EESC public hearing on November 4th 2014 in Brussels and presented on EHS. Please see Dr. Isaac Jamieson’s excellent presentation here.
2015, Brussels International Scientific Declaration on Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Download it here.
Recognition of the Electromagnetic Sensitivity as a Disability Under the ADA
The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board) is the Federal agency devoted to the accessibility for people with disabilities. The Access Board is responsible for developing and maintaining accessibility guidelines to ensure that newly constructed and altered buildings and facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Architectural Barriers Act are accessible to and usable by people with disabilities. In November 1999, the Access Board issued a proposed rule to revise and update its accessibility guidelines. During the public comment period on the proposed rule, the Access Board received approximately 600 comments from individuals with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) and electromagnetic sensitivities (EMS).
The Board has taken the commentary very seriously and acted upon it. As stated in the Background for its Final Rule Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities; Recreation Facilities that was published in September 2002:
“The Board recognizes that multiple chemical sensitivities and electromagnetic sensitivities may be considered disabilities under the ADA if they so severely impair the neurological, respiratory or other functions of an individual that it substantially limits one or more of the individual’s major life activities. The Board plans to closely examine the needs of this population, and undertake activities that address accessibility issues for these individuals”.
Following its recognition of electro sensitivity and its declaration of commitment to attend to the needs of the electromagnetic sensitive, the Access Board contracted the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) to examine how to accommodate the needs of the electro sensitive in federally funded buildings. In 2005 the NIBS issued a report.
DOCUMENT ON ACCOMODATIONS IN USA
MEMORANDUM OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION SERVICES ADMINISTRATION REHABILITATION SERVICES ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON on page 8 it states suggested ways to accommodate which include “minimizing exposure to electromagnetic fields from computers, fluorescent light ballasts, and other equipment.”
Job Accommodations for People with Electrical Sensitivity Job Accommodation Network (JAN). Preparation of this item was funded by the Office of Disability Employment Policy, U.S. Department of Labor
9/2014: Los Angeles Unified School District Accommodated a Teacher Who Fell Ill After Wireless Installation. Read the Press release and watch the video of her testimony to the LAUSD School District Here. Read her letter of accommodation Here.
a) Grades don’t matter, only impact on major life activity, see p. 5 .
” School staff should note, in particular, that a student may have a disability and be eligible for Section 504 services even if his or her disability does not limit the major life activity of learning.
Therefore, rather than considering only how an impairment affects a student’s ability to learn, school staff must also consider how the impairment affects any major life activity of the student and, if necessary, assess what is needed to ensure that students have an equal opportunity to participate in the school’s programs.”
For example: (1) a student with a visual impairment
School staff should note that a student may have a disability and be eligible for Section 504 services, including modifications, even if the student earns good grades.
This is because the student’s impairment may substantially limit a major life activity regardless of whether the student performs well academically, and the student may need special education or related aids and services because of this disability.
b) Mitigating measures, see p. 6:
“Mitigating measures. When determining if a person has a disability, a school cannot consider the ameliorative effects of mitigating measures when determining how the impairment impacts the major life activities under consideration.”
if a person is taking mitigating measures to treat their impairment, p. 20 of OCR guide:
“In other words, when a school district conducts an evaluation for disability, it is important to consider that mitigating measures can treat the impairment, thereby obscuring the substantial limitations of the impairment.Therefore, it is useful to have evidence showing that an impairment would be substantially limiting in the absence of the ameliorative (beneficial) effects of mitigating measures. For example, such evidence could include information about the limitations a person experienced prior to taking medication, or evidence concerning the expected course of a particular disorder absent mitigating measures (such as a student with a peanut allergy could stop breathing after contact with peanuts.) This is why it is also beneficial to involve parents in the evaluation process, to access such information that parents may have.
A student is not required to stop taking needed medication or using another mitigating measure in order to receive an evaluation.
Therefore, when determining whether a student with a health concern has a disability, the school district must evaluate whether the health concern (for example, a tree nut allergy or diabetes) would be substantially limiting without considering the beneficial effects (amelioration) of medication or other measures.
The European Union’s European Economic and Social Committee has urged continuance of the precautionary principle through regulation and advisory work. They adopted an opinion on electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome (EHS) The European Union’s European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) Draft Opinion on electrohypersensitivity.
A mother takes it to court: A Montreal lawyer has filed a discrimination complaint against the Public Health Department (PHD) of Montreal and the Quebec government who refuse to give him and his three children reasonable accommodations due to EHS. Read it here.
Read about a Federal Complaint filed against a US School for ADA Violations by Parents of A Electrically Sensitive Child 8/2015 Initial Press Release HERE. Full Complaint. Experts Letters Amended Complaint 12/2015
What It’s Like to Be Allergic to Wi-Fi NY Magazine By Alexa Tsoulis-Reay
The Town without WiFi, Washingtonian Magazine
Notre Dame Magazine I Am an EMF Refugee