Cell Phone Radiation Associated Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising: Scientific Documentation

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Cell Phone Associated Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising

There is evidence that the numbers of people diagnosed with the type of brain tumor linked to cell phone use- glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is increasing as documented in some US and international cancer registries.

Glioblastomas (the type of brain cancer linked to cell phone radiation) and central nervous system tumors are increasing in young Americans, in precisely the areas of the brain that absorb most of the microwave radiation emitted or received by phones.

On this page we are maintaining a list of the scientific documentation of these cancer increases  as well as the science linking cell phones to brain cancer. (Scroll down for scientific citations). Some facts:

  • The incidence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the deadliest type of brain tumor and linked to cell phone use- more than doubled in England between 1995 and 2015, according to a new analysis of national statistics published in 2018 in the Journal of the Environment and Public Health. 
  • The American Brain Tumor Association’s largest, most comprehensive US analysis to date, found the incidence of anaplastic astrocytoma, tumors of the meninges, tumors of the sellar region and unclassified tumors have increased in young adults 15-35.
  • A 2015 published analysis that looked at 2000-2010 data from the United States Cancer Statistics publication and the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States found significant increases in malignant and nonmalignant central nervous system tumors among adolescents and and also significant increases in acute lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and malignant central nervous system tumors in children.
  • In 2016 the Cancer Prevention Institute of California’s Annual Report reported an increase in the incidence of glioblastomas in non Hispanic white males and females in the the greater San Francisco Bay area.  
  • In 2012 Zada et al found the incidence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) increased in the frontal and temporal lobes, and in the cerebellum among adults in the U.S. from 1992-2006.
  • A 2014 published Dutch analysis (Ho et .al.) also found increases in GBMs.
  • A 2011 published study looking at brain tumor incidence in Australia  data found a significant increasing incidence in GBM, particularly after 2006 (Dobes 2011).
  • The National Cancer Institute reported that glioma incidence in the frontal lobe increased among young adults 20-29 years of age (Inskip et al., 2010).
  • Hardell and Carlberg (2017) reported that in Sweden brain tumors of unknown type increased from 2007-2015, especially in the age group 20-39 years of age during 2007–2015 and they state, “this may be explained by higher risk for brain tumor in subjects with first use of a wireless phone before the age of 20 years taking a reasonable latency period.”
  • The Danish Cancer Society reported a doubling in the number of men diagnosed with glioblastoma over the last ten years.  
  • According to a 2018 analysis of Swedish Cancer Registry data by the  Swedish Radiation Protection Foundation -Cancers in the head and the neck are increasing in Sweden according to the latest cancer incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry (2018) Cancers in the thyroid and the mouth are among the cancers that have seen the sharpest rise during the last decade but also the trend for cancers of the pituitary are on the rise. Among men aged 50 -79 years malignant brain tumours, grade 3-4 are also increasing visibly. The increase of these cancers has coincided with increasing use of mobile phones during the same time period while the increasing trend of malignant brain tumours, gliomas, might be an effect of long term use of mobile phones.

 

In addition to research that has found cell phone links to brain tumors, research has also found associations with salivary gland tumors. A 2007 study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology found a relationship between long term cellphone use and tumors of the parotid gland.  A 2017 United States analysis found the incidence of salivary gland tumors are rising- especially small parotid tumors. A 2016 study published in the Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine found cell phone use results in inflammatory changes in the saliva produced by the parotid glands, paralleling 2013 and 2015 studies that found saliva changes associated with people who were heavier cell phone users. A 2017 meta analysis of studies on parotid gland tumors found an association between mobile phone use and parotid gland tumor risk.  While more documentation is needed, the current research evidence is leading to the hypothesis that the use of mobile phones may cause oxidative stress, modify salivary function and this could impact salivary gland tumor development. 

Importantly, cell phone related brain tumor  increases cannot be expected to show up in the general population, especially not where the incidence of all brain cancers are considered or where researchers look at brain cancer “overall.” For example, a  2016 study from Australia which looked at brain cancer rates overall  made headline news alleging that cell phones do not cause brain cancer. In response, several cancer researchers called such conclusions inaccurate and “misleading.” Read Prof. Dariusz Leszczynski’s response to the Chapman study where he concludes that “the conclusion of the Australian study..is completely false because it is not supported by the evidence.”  

Brain cancers are slow-growing and can take decades to develop after toxic exposure. Rates of lung cancer did not increase in the general population until more than three decades after American men had begun to smoke heavily. Therefore research using case-control designs that study small groups of highly exposed persons are more appropriate for identifying cancer risks tied with cell phone use. Swedish physician-researcher Lennart Hardell’s case control studies  found that persons who began using cell phones as teenagers have a four- to five-fold greater risk of brain tumors.

Read Dr. Davis, Dr. Miller, and Lloyd Morgan’s response in Oxford University Press: Why there can be no increase in all brain cancers tied with cell phone use where they state, “The link between the carcinogenic effects of tobacco and cancer did not come about from studying population trends, but by special study of high-risk groups using case-control designs of selected cases and comparing their histories with those of persons who were otherwise similar but did not smoke, and cohort studies of groups with identified smoking histories followed for up to 40 years…The fact that population-based trends in Australia do not yet show an increase in brain cancer does not mean it will not be detectable in the future—perhaps soon.”

A 2017 update from the the BioInitiative Working Group 2017 “Use of Wireless Phones and Evidence for Increased Risk of Brain Tumors” (Hardell and Calberg 2017) shows the evidence has strengthened for brain cancers related to wireless phone use.  The 2017 analysis details the scientific results of case-control studies published between 2010 and 2017 on cancers of the brain and concludes that, “By now carcinogenicity has been shown in human epidemiological studies replicated in animal studies. Laboratory studies on RF radiation have shown increased ROS production that can cause DNA strand breaks. In 2013, we published the conclusion that RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen Group 1 according to IARC definition, based on scientific evidence (Hardell and Carlberg, 2013) further supported in our up-dated article (Carlberg and Hardell, 2017) Clearly also based on the IARC preamble to the monographs, RF radiation should be classified as Group 1: The agent is carcinogenic to humans…”

Research Studies:

2018 update: Brain tumours: rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme incidence in England 1995–2015 suggests an adverse environmental or lifestyle factor

“We found a sustained and highly significant increase in GBM throughout the 21 years and across all ages,” said Alasdair Philips, the lead author of the study, which has just been released online by the peer-reviewed, open access, Journal of Environmental and Public Health.

“The incidence rate of GBM, the most aggressive and quickly fatal brain tumor, is rising dramatically in England while the rates for lower grade tumors have decreased, masking this dramatic trend in the overall data,” Philips told Microwave News from his home in Beeswing in southern Scotland, not far from the English border. Read the Microwave News article here. 

Population-Based Epidemiology Studies

Hardell, Lennart and Michael Carlberg. “Use of Wireless Phones and Evidence for Increased Risk of Brain Tumors.” BioInitiative Working Group, Section 11 (2017).

  • “Since the IARC evaluation in 2011 more studies have been published that support a causal association between RF radiation and brain and head tumors. In the following an updated summary is given of case-control studies on brain and head tumors; glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma. “

Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. “Mobile phones, cordless phones and rates of brain tumors in different age groups in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cancer Register during 1998-2015.” PloS ONE 12.10 (2017): e0185461.

  • “In summary this register based study showed increasing rates of [brain] tumors of unknown type in CNS (D43) with higher rate during 2007–2015. AAPC [average annual percent change] increased especially in the age group 20–39 years at diagnosis. This may be explained by higher risk for brain tumor in subjects with first use of a wireless phone before the age of 20 years taking a reasonable latency period.”
  • The age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 of brain tumors (ICD-7 code 193.0) in the Swedish Cancer Register increased statistically significant in men during 1998–2015. Also in women AAPC increased, although not statistically significant, see Table 2….

“The Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry: Annual Incidence and Mortality Review, 1988-2013.” Cancer Prevention Institute of California (2016).

  • In the Greater Bay Area, incidence rates of glioblastoma have risen significantly since 1988 among both non Hispanic white White males (0.7% per year) and non Hispanic White females (1.1% per year) and have remained stable among all other racial/ethnic groups.  

Gittleman, Haley R., et al. “Trends in central nervous system tumor incidence relative to other common cancers in adults, adolescents, and children in the United States, 2000 to 2010.” Cancer 121.1 (2015): 102-112.

  • “Surveillance of IR trends is an important way to measure the changing public health and economic burden of cancer. In the current study, there were significant decreases noted in the incidence of adult cancer, whereas adolescent and childhood cancer IR were either stable or increasing.
  • In adults, there were significant decreases noted in the incidence of colon, breast, lung, prostate, and malignant central nervous system tumors (CNST), but a significant increase in nonmalignant CNST. There were significant increases observed in malignant CNST and nonmalignant CNST among adolescents and significant increases in acute lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and malignant CNST noted in children.”
  • In adolescents, there were significant increases in malignant CNST (2000-2008: APC, 1.0) and nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 3.9). In children, there were significant increases in acute lymphocytic leukemia (2000-2010: APC, 1.0), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2000-2010: APC, 0.6), and malignant CNST (2000-2010: APC, 0.6).

 

Ostrom, Quinn T., et al. “American brain tumor association adolescent and young adult primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2008-2012.” Neuro-Oncology 18.suppl_1 (2015): i1-i50.

  • Incidence of anaplastic astrocytoma in AYA has significantly increased from 2006-2012 (Annual Percent Change (APC) = 2.7).
  • Incidence of oligodendroglioma (APC = −2.9) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (APC = −4.1) in AYA has significantly decreased from 2004-2012.
  • Incidence of tumors of the meninges in AYA has significantly increased from 2004-2012 (APC = 2.5), which is largely driven by the increase of meningioma incidence during that time (APC = 2.6).
  • Incidence of lymphomas and hematopoietic neoplasms has significantly decreased from 2004-2012 (APC = −2.8) in AYA.
  • Incidence of tumors of the sellar region in AYA has significantly increased from 2004-2008 (APC = 8.5), which is largely driven by the increase of tumors of the pituitary incidence from 2004-2009 (APC = 7.6).
  • Incidence of unclassified tumors in AYA has significantly increased from 2004-2012 (APC = 5.5), which is largely driven by the increase of hemangioma incidence from 2004-2010 (APC = 18.8).

 

Ho, Vincent KY, et al. “Changing incidence and improved survival of gliomas.” European Journal of Cancer 50.13 (2014): 2309-2318.

  • “The incidence rate for the total group of gliomas slightly increased, with a decrease of anaplastic and unspecified tumours and an increase of glioblastoma. Following the introduction of combined chemoradiation, two-year survival rates for glioblastoma significantly improved. Survival improved for low-grade gliomas except for low-grade astrocytic tumours.”

 

Benson, Victoria S., et al. “Mobile phone use and risk of brain neoplasms and other cancers: prospective study.” International Journal of Epidemiology 42.3 (2013): 792-802.

  • “During 7 years’ follow-up, 51,680 incident invasive cancers and 1,261 incident intracranial CNS tumours occurred. Risk among ever vs never users of mobile phones was not increased for all intracranial CNS tumours (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.90-1.14, P = 0.82), for specified CNS tumour types nor for cancer at 18 other specified sites. For long-term users compared with never users, there was no appreciable association for glioma (10+ years: RR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.55-1.10, P = 0.16) or meningioma (10+ years: RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.66-1.84, P = 0.71). For acoustic neuroma, there was an increase in risk with long term use vs never use (10+ years: RR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.07-5.64, P = 0.03), the risk increasing with duration of use (trend among users, P = 0.03).”

 

Hardell, L., M. Carlberg and Mild K. Hansson. “Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma.” Pathophysiology 20.2 (2013): 85-110.

  • “We give an overview of current epidemiological evidence for an increased risk for brain tumours including a meta-analysis of the Hardell group and Interphone results for mobile phone use. It is concluded that one should be careful using incidence data to dismiss results in analytical epidemiology. The IARC carcinogenic classification does not seem to have had any significant impact on governments’ perceptions of their responsibilities to protect public health from this widespread source of radiation”.

 

Zada, Gabriel, et al. “Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992–2006.” World Neurosurgery 77.3 (2012): 518-524.

  • “Data from 3 major cancer registries demonstrate increased incidences of GBMs in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and cerebellum, despite decreased incidences in other brain regions. Although this may represent an effect of diagnostic bias, the incidence of both large and small tumors increased in these regions. The cause of these observed trends is unknown.”

 

Dobes, Martin, et al. “Increasing incidence of glioblastoma multiforme and meningioma, and decreasing incidence of Schwannoma (2000–2008): findings of a multicenter Australian study.” Surgical Neurology International 2.176 (2011).

  • A significant increasing incidence in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was observed in the study period (annual percentage change [APC], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4–4.6, n = 2275), particularly after 2006. In GBM patients in the ≥65-year group, a significantly increasing incidence for men and women combined (APC, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.5–5.6) and men only (APC, 2.9; 95% CI, 0.1–5.8) was seen. Rising trends in incidence were also seen for meningioma in the total male population (APC, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.6–8.1, n = 515) and males aged 20–64 years (APC, 6.3; 95% CI, 3.8–8.8). Significantly decreasing incidence trends were observed for Schwannoma for the total study population (APC, –3.5; 95% CI, –7.2 to –0.2, n = 492), significant in women (APC, –5.3; 95% CI, –9.9 to –0.5) but not men.

 

IARC Working Group.“Non-ionizing radiation, Part II: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fieldsIARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 102.2 (2011): 1-460.

  • Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).” (p. 421)
  • “Overall, the Working Group reviewed all the available evidence with regard to the use of wireless phones, including both mobile and cordless phones, and the risk of glioma. Time trends were considered, as were several early case–control studies and one cohort study. The evidence from these studies was considered less informative than the results of the INTERPHONE study and the Swedish case–control study. While both of these are susceptible to bias, the Working Group concluded that these findings could not be dismissed as reflecting bias alone, and that a causal interpretation was possible.”
  • “In considering the evidence on acoustic neuroma, the Working Group considered the same methodological concerns as for glioma, but concluded that bias was not sufficient to explain the positive findings, particularly those of the study from Sweden.” (p. 412)

 

Inskip, Peter D., Robert N. Hoover, and Susan S. Devesa. “Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States.” Neuro-oncology 12.11 (2010): 1147-1151.

  • “With the exception of the 20–29-year age group, the trends for 1992–2006 were downward or flat. Among those aged 20–29 years, there was a statistically significant increasing trend between 1992 and 2006 among females but not among males. The recent trend in 20–29-year-old women was driven by a rising incidence of frontal lobe cancers. No increases were apparent for temporal or parietal lobe cancers, or cancers of the cerebellum, which involve the parts of the brain that would be more highly exposed to radiofrequency radiation from cellular phones. Frontal lobe cancer rates also rose among 20–29-year-old males, but the increase began earlier than among females and before cell phone use was highly prevalent.”

 

Case control studies

 

Carlberg, Micheal and Lennart Hardell. “Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation.” BioMed Research International 2017.9218486 (2017).

  • “Bradford Hill’s viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation were used on glioma risk and use of mobile or cordless phones.”
  • “Results. Strength: meta-analysis of case-control studies gave odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31–2.76 with highest cumulative exposure. Consistency: the risk increased with latency, meta-analysis gave in the 10+ years’ latency group OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.20–2.19. Specificity: increased risk for glioma was in the temporal lobe. Using meningioma cases as comparison group still increased the risk. Temporality: highest risk was in the 20+ years’ latency group, OR = 2.01, 95% CI =1.41–2.88, for wireless phones. Biological gradient: cumulative use of wireless phones increased the risk. Plausibility: animal studies showed an increased incidence of glioma and malignant schwannoma in rats exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. There is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from RF radiation. Coherence: there is a change in the natural history of glioma and increasing incidence. Experiment: antioxidants reduced ROS production from RF radiation. Analogy: there is an increased risk in subjects exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields.
  • “Conclusion. RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen causing glioma.”

 

Momoli, F., et al. “Probabilistic multiple-bias modelling applied to the Canadian data from the INTERPHONE study of mobile phone use and risk of glioma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors.” American Journal of Epidemiology, 186.7 (2017): 885-893.

  • “We undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the 13-country case-control Interphone Study (2001-2004), in which researchers evaluated the associations of mobile phone use with the risks of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors.”
  • “For glioma, when comparing those in the highest quartile of use (>558 lifetime hours) to those who were not regular users, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.4). After adjustment for selection and recall biases, the odds ratio was 2.2 (95% limits: 1.3, 4.1). There was little evidence of an increase in the risk of meningioma, acoustic neuroma, or parotid gland tumors in relation to mobile phone use.”

 

Prasad, Manya, et al. “Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes.” Neurological Sciences (2017) 1-14.

  • This paper aims to investigate whether methodological quality of studies and source of funding can explain the variation in results. Twenty-two case control studies were included for systematic review
  • For mobile phone use of 10 years or longer (or >1640 h), the overall result of the meta-analysis showed a significant 1.33 times increase in risk. The summary estimate of government funded as well as phone industry funded studies showed no significant increase, while mixed funded studies did not show any increase in risk of brain tumour. The association was significantly linked with methodological study quality. Evidence linking mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours especially in long-term users (≥10 years) was found. Studies with higher quality showed a trend towards high risk of brain tumour, while lower quality showed a trend towards lower risk/protection.

 

Yang, M., et al. “Mobile phone use and glioma risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” PLoS One 12.5 (2017).

  • “There was a significant positive association between long-term mobile phone use (minimum, 10 years) and glioma (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.08–1.91). And there was a significant positive association between long-term ipsilateral mobile phone use and the risk of glioma (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92). Long-term mobile phone use was associated with 2.22 times greater odds of low-grade glioma occurrence (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69–2.92). Mobile phone use of any duration was not associated with the odds of high-grade glioma (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72–0.92).”
  • “Our results suggest that long-term mobile phone use may be associated with an increased risk of glioma.”

 

Grell, Kathrine, et al. “The Intracranial Distribution of Gliomas in Relation to Exposure From Mobile Phones: Analyses From the INTERPHONE Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology 184.11 (2016): 818-28.

  • “Similar to earlier results, we found a statistically significant association between the intracranial distribution of gliomas and the self-reported location of the phone. When we accounted for the preferred side of the head not being exclusively used for all mobile phone calls, the results were similar. The association was independent of the cumulative call time and cumulative number of calls.

 

Morgan, L.L., et al. “Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (review).”International Journal of Oncology 46.5 (2015): 1865-71.  

  • The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use.
  • We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A ̔probable̓ human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). Additional data should be gathered on exposures to mobile and cordless phones, other WTDs, mobile phone base stations and Wi‑Fi routers to evaluate their impact on public health.
  • We advise that the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle be adopted for uses of this technology, while a major cross‑disciplinary effort is generated to train researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of potential health impacts of RF‑EMF.

 

Carlberg, M. and L. Hardell. “Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11.10 (2014): 10790-805.

  • We analysed survival of 1678 glioma patients in our 1997–2003 and 2007–2009 case-control studies. Use of wireless phones in the >20 years latency group (time since first use) yielded an increased hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–2.3 for glioma. For astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme; n = 926) mobile phone use yielded HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4–2.9 and cordless phone use HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.04–11 in the same latency category. The hazard ratio for astrocytoma grade IV increased statistically significant per year of latency for wireless phones, HR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.007–1.033, but not per 100 h cumulative use, HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.999–1.005. HR was not statistically significant increased for other types of glioma.”
  • “Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines.”

 

Coureau, G., et al. “ Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study.Occupational and Environmental Medicine 71.7 (2014): 514-22.

  • “No association with brain tumours was observed when comparing regular mobile phone users with non-users. However, the positive association was statistically significant in the heaviest users when considering life-long cumulative duration and number of calls for gliomas. Risks were higher for gliomas, temporal tumours, occupational and urban mobile phone use.”
  • “These additional data support previous findings concerning a possible association between heavy mobile phone use and brain tumours.”

 

Hardell, M. and L. Carlberg. “Cell and cordless phone risk for glioma – Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997-2003 and 2007-2009.” Pathophysiology 22.1 (2014): 1-13.

  • “Mobile phone use increased the risk of glioma, OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1–1.6 overall, increasing to OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.7–5.2 in the >25 year latency group. Use of cordless phones increased the risk to OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1–1.7, with highest risk in the >15–20 years latency group yielding OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1–2.5. The OR increased statistically significant both per 100 h of cumulative use, and per year of latency for mobile and cordless phone use. Highest ORs overall were found for ipsilateral mobile or cordless phone use, OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4–2.2 and OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3–2.1, respectively. The highest risk was found for glioma in the temporal lobe. First use of mobile or cordless phone before the age of 20 gave higher OR for glioma than in later age groups.”

 

Hardell, L., et al. “Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use.International Journal of Oncology 43.6 (2013): 1833-45.

  • “The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04‑3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6-6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996-2.7, increasing with latency >15-20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.9, and, for latency of 15-20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20-25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1-5 years, then a lower risk in the following latency groups, but again increasing risk with latency >15-20 years. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral mobile and cordless phone use. Higher ORs were calculated for tumours in the temporal and overlapping lobes. Using the meningioma cases in the same study as reference entity gave somewhat higher ORs indicating that the results were unlikely to be explained by recall or observational bias.”
  • “This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis.”

 

Hardell, L., et al. “Pooled analysis of case-control studies on acoustic neuroma diagnosed 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 and use of mobile and cordless phones. International Journal of Oncology 43.4 (2013): 1036-44.

  • Use of mobile phones of the analogue type gave odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.3, increasing with >20 years latency (time since first exposure) to OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.8-21. Digital 2G mobile phone use gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, increasing with latency >15 years to an OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.8-4.2. The results for cordless phone use were OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, and, for latency of >20 years, OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.7-26. Digital type wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones and cordless phones) gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0 increasing to OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 2.0-32 with latency >20 years. For total wireless phone use, the highest risk was calculated for the longest latency time >20 years: OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.2-9.0. Several of the calculations in the long latency category were based on low numbers of exposed cases. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral for both mobile and cordless phones. OR increased per 100 h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per 100 h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones.
  • “This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.”

 

Cardis et al. 2011, Elisabeth, et al. “Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68.9 (2011): 631-40.

  • There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma in long-term mobile phone users with high RF exposure and of similar, but apparently much smaller, increases in meningioma risk. The uncertainty of these results requires that they be replicated before a causal interpretation can be made.”

 

Hardell, L. and M. Carlberg. “Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours.International Journal of Oncology 35 (2009): 5-17.

  • The Hardell-group conducted during 1997-2003 two case control studies on brain tumours including assessment of use of mobile phones and cordless phones.
  • Regarding astrocytoma we found highest risk for ipsilateral mobile phone use in the >10 year latency group, OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.0-5.4 and for cordless phone use OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.3-11.
  • In total, the risk was highest for cases with first use <20 years age, for mobile phone OR=5.2, 95% CI=2.2-12 and for cordless phone OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10.
  • For acoustic neuroma, the highest OR was found for ipsilateral use and >10 year latency, for mobile phone OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.2 and cordless phone OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.6-8.8. Overall highest OR for mobile phone use was found in subjects with first use at age  less than 20 years.

 

Myung S.K., et al. “Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Tumors: A Meta-Analysis.Journal of Clinical Oncology 27.33 (2009): 5565-72.

  • “The current study found that there is possible evidence linking mobile phone use to an increased risk of tumors from a meta-analysis of low-biased case-control studies. Prospective cohort studies providing a higher level of evidence are needed.”

 

Hardell, L., et al. “Pooled analysis of two case-control studies on the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003.” International Journal of Oncology (2006): 509-18.

  • In the multivariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of acoustic neuroma was found with the use of analogue phones.

 

Animal Studies Post IARC

 

Wyde, Michael, et al. “Report of Partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure).” bioRxiv 055699 (2016). (National Toxicology Program Video Presentation)

 

Lerchl, et al. “Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2015.

 

Salivary Tumors and the Parotid Gland

Sadetzki, Siegal, et al. “Cellular Phone Use and Risk of Benign and Malignant Parotid Gland Tumors–A Nationwide Case-Control Study.”American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 167, no. 4, 2007, pp. 457-67.

 

Bortkiewicz, A., E. Gadzicka and W. Szymczak.“Mobile phone use and risk for intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors – A meta-analysis.”International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, vol. 30, no. 1, 2017, pp. 27-43.

 

Del Signore AG  Megwalu UC., The rising incidence of major salivary gland cancer in the United States, Ear Nose Throat J. 2017 Mar;96(3):E13-E16.

 

Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho, et al. “Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 45 (2016): 682-6.

  • “The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cell phone use alters cytokine expression in the saliva produced by the parotid glands.”
  • Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays were used to determine the cytokine expression profiles of saliva produced by the parotid gland within subjects exposed to cell phone radiation in comparison to those not exposed.
  • Significantly altered levels of interleukin 10 and 1-Beta were found between exposed and unexposed individuals in a manner that is consistent with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment within the parotid gland.

 

Thyroid Gland

Carlberg, Michael, et al. “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.” BMC Cancer 16.426 (2016).

  • “The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries, especially the papillary type that is the most radiosensitive type.” Researchers used the Swedish Cancer Register to study the incidence of thyroid cancer during 1970–2013 using joinpoint regression analysis.
  • Results showed an increased incidence of thyroid cancer in Sweden from 1970-2013, with the increase being statistically significant in women but not men. Other nordic countries also showed significantly statistic thyroid cancer increases.
  • “We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e.g. medical computed tomography (CT) scans, and to RF-EMF (non-ionizing radiation) should be further studied.”

 

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