Peer Reviewed Research Studies on Wi-Fi


Peer Reviewed Published Research Studies on Wi-Fi and 2.4 GHz Wireless Frequencies

Many people ask “What research has been done on Wi-Fi frequencies? Do we know that they are as harmful as cell phone radiation frequencies?”

In response, we would state that all wireless frequencies currently used by the public are categorized as radiofrequency radiation. People have not been using Wi-Fi for as long as they have been using cell phones, so the research that has looked at long term use of cell phones is very important in considering the long term health risks from wireless and Wi-Fi specifically.

The World Health Organization International Agency for the Research on Cancer’s classification of wireless radiofrequency frequencies a Class 2B carcinogen includes wireless radiation from any transmitting source such as cellphones, baby monitors, tablets, cell towers, radar, other wifi, etc. The radiofrequency classification applies to RF-EMF in the range of 30 KHz to 300 GHz emitted from any device. Cell phone frequencies commonly start at 900 MHz (with some cell phones having up to 7 antennas all at different frequencies) and Wi-Fi device frequencies are at 2.45 GHz and 5GHz.

While cell phones localize the highest microwave exposure to the brain, Wi-Fi  exposures are often localized to the abdomen, leg and chest area. However this is not always the case as some people sleep in rooms with Wi-Fi baby monitors, Wi-Fi routers or Wi-Fi gaming devices near their pillow. Wi-Fi printers may be in offices next to a person’s desk and most people are unaware that they transmit continuously. All in all, for some people- especially children- the Wi-Fi exposure is quite significant to overall cumulative exposure.

Wi-Fi devices emit continuous radiation bursts, just like cell phones, as they always stay in contact with their router or base station. The Wi-Fi radiation patterns can be quite erratic when the device is in use and this can further impact biological effects.

See below a short list of some research studies on Wi-Fi and 2.4 GHz Wireless Frequencies specifically. Read more about studies showing effects from radiofrequency radiation frequencies at this link.

Research Studies on Wi-Fi  

Hassanshahi, A., et al. “The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves in unimodal and multimodal object recognition tasks in male rats.” Neurological Sciences, 2017, pp. 1-8.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation (12 h/day for 30 days) on multisensory integration in male rats. Results demonstrated that rats in Wi-Fi exposure groups could not discriminate significantly between the novel and familiar objects in any of the standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests and the expression of M1 receptors increased following Wi-Fi exposure. In conclusion, results of this study showed that chronic exposure to Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves might impair both unimodal and cross-modal encoding of information.

Akdag, M.Z., et al. “Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats?” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol. 75, pt. B, 2016, pp. 116-22.

The purpose of this study was to reveal whether long term exposure (over a year) of 2.4GHz frequency RF radiation will cause DNA damage of different tissues such as brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissue and testicular tissues of rats. Based on the DNA damage results determined by the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) method, it was found that the % tail DNA values of the brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissues of the rats in the experimental group increased more than those in the control group. The increase of the DNA damage in all tissues was not significant (p>0.05), however the increase of the DNA damage in rat testes tissue was significant (p<0.01). In conclusion, long-term exposure to 2.4GHz RF radiation (Wi-Fi) does not cause DNA damage of the organs investigated in this study except testes indicating  that testes are more sensitive organ to RF radiation.

Kuybulu, A.E., et al.“Effects of long-term pre- and post-natal exposure to 2.45GHz wireless devices on developing male rat kidney.” Renal Failure, vol. 38, no. 4, 2016, pp. 571-80.

The aim of the present study was to investigate oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney tissues of male Wistar rats that pre- and postnatally exposed to 2.45 GHz wireless electromagnetic field (EMF) for 1 h/day until puberty. Based on this study, it is thought that chronic pre- and post-natal period exposure to wireless internet frequency of EMF may cause chronic kidney damages; staying away from EMF source in especially pregnancy and early childhood period may reduce negative effects of exposure on kidney.

Celik, O., M.C. Kahya and M. Naziroglu. “Oxidative stress of brain and liver is increased by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) exposure of rats during pregnancy and the development of newborns.” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol. 75, pt. B, 2015, pp. 134-9.

An excessive production of reactive oxygen substances (ROS) and reduced antioxidant defence systems resulting from electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure may lead to oxidative brain and liver damage and degradation of membranes during pregnancy and development of rat pups. In the EMR groups, lipid peroxidation levels in the brain and liver were increased following EMR exposure; however, the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and vitamin A, vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were decreased in the brain and liver. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C concentrations in the brain were also lower in the EMR groups than in the controls; however, their concentrations did not change in the liver. In conclusion, Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver of developing rats was the result of reduced GSH-Px, GSH and antioxidant vitamin concentrations. Moreover, the brain seemed to be more sensitive to oxidative injury compared to the liver in the development of newborns.

Ciftci, Z.Z., et al. “Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure of Wi-Fi on development of teeth and changes in teeth element concentration in rats.” Biological Trace Element Research, vol.163, no. 1-2, 2015, pp. 193-201.

The present study determined the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi-induced electromagnetic radiation (2h/day for 21 days during pregnancy and 21 days during lactation) on tooth and surrounding tissue development as well as the element levels in growing rats. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations between the experimental and control groups showed that exposure to 2.45 GHz EMR for 2 h per day does not interfere with the development of teeth and surrounding tissues. However, there were alterations in the elemental composition of the teeth, especially affecting such oxidative stress-related elements as copper, zinc, and iron, suggesting that short-term exposure to Wi-Fi-induced EMR may cause an imbalance in the oxidative stress condition in the teeth of growing rats.

Cig, B. and M. Naziroglu. “Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells.” Biochemica et Physica Acta, vol. 1848, pt B, 2015, pp. 2756-65.

We aimed to investigate the effects of distance from sources on calcium signaling, cytosolic ROS production, cell viability, apoptosis, plus caspase-3 and -9 values induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells. The cytosolic ROS production, Ca2+ concentrations, apoptosis, caspase-3 and caspase-9 values were higher in groups exposed to 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 2450 MHz compared to controls at 0 cm, 1 cm and 5 cm distances although cell viability (MTT) values were increased by the distances. There was no statistically significant difference in the values between control, 20 and 25 cm. Wi-Fi and mobile phone EMR placed within 10 cm of the cells induced excessive oxidative responses and apoptosis via TRPV1-induced cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in the cancer cells. Using cell phones and Wi-Fi sources which are farther away than 10 cm may provide useful protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis and overload of intracellular Ca2+.

Dasdag, S., et al. “Effect of long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on testes functions.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, 2015, pp. 37-42.

The aim of this study was to investigate long-term effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation (24 h/day for 1 year) emitted from a Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) system on the testes of male rats. Results showed that sperm head defects increased in the exposure group (p < 0.05) while weight of the epididymis and seminal vesicles, seminiferous tubules diameter and tunica albuginea thickness were decreased in the exposure group (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001). However, other alterations of other parameters were not found significant (p > 0.05). We suggest Wi-Fi users to avoid long-term exposure of RF emissions from Wi-Fi equipment.

Dasdag, S., et al. “Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue.” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol 91, no. 7, 2015,  pp. 555-61.

The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation (24h/day for 12 months) emitted from a Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) system on some of the miRNA in brain tissue in male rats. The results revealed that long-term exposure of RFR radiation can alter expression of some of the miRNAs, indicating that this type of exposure may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases originated from the alteration of some miRNA expression and more studies should be devoted to the effects of RF radiation on miRNA expression levels.

Deshmukh, P.S., et al. “Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation.”  International Journal of Toxicology, vol. 34, no. 3, 2015, pp. 284-90.

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic low-intensity microwave exposure (900, 1800 or 2450 MHz for 180 days) on cognitive function, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and DNA damage in the rat brain. The results showed declined cognitive function, elevated HSP70 level, and DNA damage in the brain of microwave-exposed animals. The results indicated that, chronic low-intensity microwave exposure in the frequency range of 900 to 2450 MHz may cause hazardous effects on the brain.

Megha, K., et al. “Low intensity microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain.” Neurotoxicology, vol. 51, 2015, pp. 158-65.

The present study was undertaken to determine the influence of low intensity microwave radiation (900, 1800, or 2450 MHz for 2h/day, 5days/week, for 60 days) on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain. Low intensity microwave exposure resulted in a frequency dependent significant increase in oxidative stress markers, reduced levels of GSH and SOD, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and significant DNA damage in microwave exposed groups compared to controls. In conclusion, the present study suggests that low intensity microwave radiation induces oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in brain by exerting a frequency dependent effect. The study also indicates that increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response might be the factors involved in DNA damage following low intensity microwave exposure.

Misa-Agustiño, M.J. et al. “Exposure to non-ionizing radiation provokes changes in rat thyroid morphology and expression of HSP-90.” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 240, no. 9, 2015, pp.  1123-35.

Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the morphology and expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. The present study used a diathermy model – the therapeutic application of non-ionizing radiation – on laboratory rats subjected to maximum exposure non-ionizing radiation (30 min, 10 times in two weeks) in the left front leg, in order to study the effects of radiation on the nearby thyroid tissue.Ninety minutes after radiation with the highest SAR, the central and peripheral follicles presented increased size and the thickness of the peripheral septa had decreased. Twenty-four hours after radiation, only peripheral follicles radiated at 12 W were found to be smaller. Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis.

Misa-Augustiño, M.J., et al. “EMF radiation at 2450 MHz triggers changes in the morphology and expression of heat shock proteins and glucocorticoid receptors in rat thymus.” Life Sciences, vol. 127, 2015, pp. 1-11.

This study analyzed cellular stress levels in rat thymus after exposure to a 2.45 GHz radio frequency (RF) using an experimental diathermic model in a Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM) chamber. The thymus tissue presented several morphological changes, including increased distribution of blood vessels along with the appearance of red blood cells and hemorrhagic reticuloepithelial cells, while the glucocorticoid receptors presented greater immunomarking on the thymic cortex in exposed animals. These results indicate that non-ionizing sub-thermal radiation causes changes in the endothelial permeability and vascularization of the thymus, and is a tissue-modulating agent for Hsp90 and GR.

Saili, L., et al. “Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit.” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 40, no. 2, 2015, pp. 600-5.

Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals, but failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system.

Sangun, O., et al. 2015. “The effects of long-term exposure to a 2450 MHz electromagnetic field on growth and pubertal development in female Wistar rats.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, 2015, pp. 63-7.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of  prenatal and postnatal 2450 MHz electromagnetic field exposure (1hy/day from intrauterine or postnatal period) on the growth and development of female Wistar rats. Birth masses of the groups were similar (p > 0.05), however mass gain per day was significantly lower and the puberty was significantly later in the prenatal group. Brain and ovary TOS and OSI values in the prenatal group were significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared to the control group and serum LH levels of the prenatal and postnatal groups were increased, although serum FSH, and E2 values did not differ among the groups (p > 0.05). Histological examinations of the specimens revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). Exposure to 2450 MHz EMF, particularly in the prenatal period, resulted in postnatal growth restriction and delayed puberty in female Wistar rats. Increased TOS and OSI values in the brain and ovary tissues can be interpreted as a sign of chronic stress induced by EMF.

Saygin, M., et al. “Impact of L-carnitine and selenium treatment on testicular apoptosis in rats exposed to 2.45gHz microwave energy.” West Indian Medicine Journal, vol 64, no. 2, 2015, pp. 55-61.

This study investigated if supplemental selenium (Se) and L-carnitine may reduce the adverse effect 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation can have on testicular apoptosis using rats as a study animal. Electromagnetic radiation exposure resulted in testicular apoptosis in rats, mainly by the intrinsic pathways by down-regulated expression of caspase-8. Reduction in the activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis was found higher with selenium administration compared with L-carnitine administration.

Saygin, M. et al. “Impact of 2.45GHz microwave radiation on the testicular inflammatory pathway biomarkers in young rats: The role of gallic acid.” Environmental Toxicology, 2015.

The aim of this study was to investigate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) transmitted by wireless devices (2.45 GHz, 3h/day for 30 days), which may cause physiopathological or ultrastructural changes, in the testes of rats and address if the supplemental gallic acid (GA) may reduce these adverse effects. EMR only group was shown to have higher oxidative stress, decreased testosterone and VEGF levels, increased prostaglandin E2 and CGRP, as well as decreased numbers of spermatozoa. Long term EMR exposure resulted in testicular physiopathology via oxidative damage and inflammation. GA may have ameliorative effects on the prepubertal rat testes physiopathology.

Shahin, S., et al. “2.45GHz microwave radiation impairs learning and spatial memory via oxidative/nitrosative stress induced p53 dependent/independent hippocampal apoptosis: molecular basis and underlying mechanism.” Toxicology Science, vol. 148, no. 2, 2015, pp. 380-99.

This study was performed to understand the effect of short (15 days) and long-term (30 and 60 days) low-level 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure on hippocampus with special reference to spatial learning and memory and its underlying mechanism in Swiss strain male mice, Mus musculus. We observed that, short-term as well as long-term 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure increases the oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to enhanced apoptosis in hippocampal subfield neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Present findings also suggest that learning and spatial memory deficit which increases with the increased duration of MW exposure (15 < 30 < 60 days) is correlated with a decrease in hippocampal subfield neuronal arborization and dendritic spines. These findings led us to conclude that exposure to CW MW radiation leads to oxidative/nitrosative stress induced p53-dependent/independent activation of hippocampal neuronal and nonneuronal apoptosis associated with spatial memory loss.

Shokri, S., et al. “Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposure on apoptosis, sperm parameters and testicular histomorphometry in rats: a time course study.” Cell Journal, vol. 17, no. 2, 2015, pp. 322-31.

This study aimed to investigate the major cause of male infertility during short- (1h/day for 2 months) and long-term (7h/day for 2 months) exposure of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation. Both 1-hour and 7-hour groups showed a decrease in sperm parameters in a time dependent pattern and the number of apoptosis-positive cells and caspase-3 activity increased in the seminiferous tubules of exposed rats. The seminal vesicle weight reduced significantly in both1-hour or 7-hour groups in comparison to the control group. Researchers concluded that there should be a major concern regarding the time dependent exposure of whole-body to the higher frequencies of Wi-Fi networks existing in the vicinity of our living places.

Taheri, M., et al. “Klebsiella pneumonia, a Microorganism that Approves the Non-linear Responses to Antibiotics and Window Theory after Exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation.” Journal of Biomedical and Physical Engineering, vol. 5, no. 3, 2015, pp. 115–20.

This study was aimed at investigating the alteration of antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumonia, after exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation from a Wi-Fi router for 3, 4.5 or 8 hours. The findings of this study show a statistically significant rise in the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after 4.5 hours of exposure to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation, followed by a fall after 8 hours of exposure. These observations can be interpreted by the concept of non-linearity in the responses of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after exposure to electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation.

Yildirim, M.E., et al. “What is harmful for male fertility: Cell phone or the wireless internet?” Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Science, vol 31, no. 9, 2015, pp. 480-4.

This study aimed to assess the potential harmful effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation on sperm parameters. There was no significant difference between sperm counts and sperm morphology excluding sperm motility, due to mobile phone usage period, however total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage and progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless Internet usage compared with the wired Internet connection usage.

Yüksel, M. et al. “Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.” Endocrine, vol. 52, no. 2, 2015, pp. 352-62.

This study investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure (60 min/day during pregnancy and growth periods) on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats.

Ghazizadeh, V. and M. Naziroglu. “Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and apoptosis through activation of TRPV1 channel in hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats.” Metabolic Brain Disease, vol. 29, no. 3, 2014, pp. 787-99.

The present study tested the effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz for 1h) exposure on Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress and apoptosis through TRPV1 channel in the murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hippocampus of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. The cytosolic free Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 and -9 values in hippocampus were higher in the PTZ group than in the control although cell viability values decreased. The Wi-Fi exposure induced additional effects on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. However, pretreatment of the neurons with CPZ, results in a protection against epilepsy-induced Ca(2+) influx, apoptosis and oxidative damages. In conclusion, epilepsy and Wi-Fi in our experimental model is involved in Ca(2+) influx and oxidative stress-induced hippocampal and DRG death through activation of TRPV1 channels, and negative modulation of this channel activity by CPZ pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.

Gürler, H.S. et al, 2014. “Increased DNA oxidation (8-OHdG) and protein oxidation (AOPP) by Low level electromagnetic field (2.45 GHz) in rat brain and protective effect of garlic.” International Journal of Radiation Biolology, vol 90, no. 10, 2014, pp. 892-6.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxidative damage and protective effect of garlic (daily 500 mg/kg during study period) on rats exposed to low level of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at 2.45 GHz Microwave radiation (MWR) for 1 h/day for 30 consecutive days. Researchers concluded that low level EMF at 2.45 GHz MWR increases the DNA damage in both brain tissues and plasma of the rats whereas it increases protein oxidation only in plasma. They also be argued that the use of garlic decreases these effects.

Margaritis, L.H. et al. “Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 33, no. 3, 2014, pp. 165-89.

This study used Drosophila as model organisms to assess the effects of various EMF sources (short time daily for 3-7 days) on apoptotic cell death of follicles during oogenesis and reproductive capacity (fecundity) decline. Sources included: 900/1800 MHz mobile phone, 1880-1900 MHz wireless base, wireless handset, mobile phone-handset combination, 2.44 GHz wireless network (Wi-Fi), 2.44 GHz bluetooth, 92.8 MHz FM generator, 27.15 MHz baby monitor, 900 MHz CW RF generator and microwave oven’s 2.44 GHz RF and magnetic field components. All EMF sources used created statistically significant effects regarding fecundity and cell death-apoptosis induction, even at very low intensity levels well below ICNIRP’s guidelines, suggesting that Drosophila oogenesis system is suitable to be used as a biomarker for exploring potential EMF bioactivity.

Meena, R., et al.“Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 33, no. 2, 2014, pp. 81-91.

The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin against oxidative stress-mediated testicular impairment due to long-term exposure (2 h/day for 45 days) of 2.45 GHz Microwave Radiation. Result shows that melatonin prevented oxidative damage biochemically by significant increase (p < 0.001) in the levels of testicular LDH-X, decreased (p < 0.001) levels of MDA and ROS in testis (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, it reversed the effects of MWs on XO, protein carbonyl content, sperm count, testosterone level and DNA fragmentation in testicular cells. These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells.

Oksay, T., et al. “Protective effects of melatonin against oxidative injury in rat testis induced by wireless (2.45 GHz) devices.” Andrologia, vol. 46, no. 1 2014, pp. 65-72.

The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of melatonin on oxidative stress-dependent testis injury induced by 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation exposure (60 min/day for 30 days). Lipid peroxidation levels were shown to be higher in melatonin-supplemented group compared to EMR only and controls, as well as reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels. Vitamin A and E concentrations decreased in exposure group, and melatonin prevented the decrease in vitamin E levels. In conclusion, wireless (2.45 GHz) EMR caused oxidative damage in testis by increasing the levels of lipid peroxidation and decreasing in vitamin A and E levels. Melatonin supplementation prevented oxidative damage induced by EMR and also supported the antioxidant redox system in the testis.

Senavirathna, M.D., et al. “Nanometer-scale elongation rate fluctuations in the Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot feather) stem were altered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation.” Plant Signal

Behavior, vol. 9, no. 4, 2014.

This study investigated the effect of 2GHz EMR (1h) on the growth dynamics of Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot feather) by measuring the nanometric elongation rate fluctuation (NERF) using a statistical interferometry technique. After continuous exposure to EMR, M. aquaticum plants exhibited a statistically significant reduction in NERF standard deviation, therefore, the reduced NERF was due to a non-thermal effect caused by EMR exposure. The alteration in NERF continued for at least 2.5 h after EMR exposure and no significant recovery was found in post-EMR NERF during the experimental period.

Shahin, S., et al. “Microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus, by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress.” Free Radical Research, vol 48, no. 5, 2014, pp. 511- 25.

This study investigated the long-term effects of low-level 2.45GHz MW irradiation (2h/day for 30 days)  on the reproductive function of male mice and its mechanism of action. Researchers observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter, degeneration of seminiferous tubules, reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and reduction in plasma testosterone levels. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. These adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway.

Soran, M.-L., et al. “Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.” Journal of Plant Physiology, vol 171, no. 15, 2014, pp. 1436-43.

Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants.

Tök, L., et al. “Effects of melatonin on Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in lens of rats.” Indian Journal of Opthalmology, vol. 62, no. 1, 2014, pp. 12-15.

The present study was designed to determine the effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi exposure (60min/day for 30 days) on the lens oxidant and antioxidant redox systems of rats, as well as the possible protective effects of melatonin on the lens injury induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Results showed poor oxidative toxic effects of one hour of Wi-Fi exposure on the lens in the animals. However, melatonin supplementation in the lens seems to have protective effects on the oxidant system by modulation of GSH-Px activity.

Aynali, G., et al. “Modulation of wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative toxicity in laryngotracheal mucosa of rat by melatonin.” European Archives of Otorhinolaryngol, vol. 270, no. 5, 2013, pp. 1695-700.

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of melatonin on oxidative stress induced by Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz, 60min/day for 28 days) EMR in laryngotracheal mucosa of rat. In comparison to control and sham groups, RFR-exposed animals had higher lipid peroxidation levels and lower glutathione peroxidase levels, while the RFR-exposed animals treated with melatonin had significantly lower lipid peroxidation levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with controls. Results show that there is an apparent protective effect of melatonin on the Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the laryngotracheal mucosa of rats by inhibition of free radical formation and support of the glutathione peroxidase antioxidant system.

Desmunkh, P.S., et al. “Detection of Low Level Microwave Radiation Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Vis-a-vis Genotoxicity in Brain of Fischer Rats.” Toxicology International, vol. 20, no. 1, 2013, pp. 19-24.

The present study was designed to investigate the possible DNA damaging effects of low-level microwave radiation (900, 1800, or 2450 MHz for 30 days) in brain of Fischer rats. Researchers demonstrated DNA damaging effects of low level microwave radiation in brain and concluded that low SAR microwave radiation exposure at these frequencies may induce DNA strand breaks in brain tissue.

Eser, O.  “The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the rat brain: an experimental study.” Turkish Neurosurgery, vol. 23, no. 6, 2013, pp. 707-15.

The aim of this study was to determine the structural changes in the frontal cortex, brainstem and cerebellum in the male rat brain due to electromagnetic wave exposure (900, 1800, 2450 MHz, 1h/day for 2 months). While the histopathological changes in the frontal cortex and brainstem were normal in the control group, there were severe degenerative changes, shrunken cytoplasm and extensively dark pyknotic nuclei in the EMR groups. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the Total Antioxidative Capacity level was significantly decreased in the EMR groups and also Total Oxidative Capacity and Oxidative Stress Index levels were significantly increased in the frontal cortex, brainstem and cerebellum. Researchers concluded that EMR causes structural changes in the frontal cortex, brainstem and cerebellum and impairs the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine system. This deterioration can cause to disease including loss of these areas function and cancer development.

Ozorak, A., et al. “Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- induced risks on oxidative stress and elements in kidney and testis of rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring.”  Biological Trace Elements Research, vol. 156, no. 103, 2013, pp. 221-9.

The present study was designed to determine the effects of both Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (60 min/day during pregnancy and growth) on oxidative stress and trace element levels in the kidney and testis of growing rats from pregnancy to 6 weeks of age. In conclusion, Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR caused oxidative damage by increasing the extent of lipid peroxidation and the iron level, while decreasing total antioxidant status, copper, and GSH values. Wi-Fi- and mobile phone-induced EMR may cause precocious puberty and oxidative kidney and testis injury in growing rats.

Salah, M.B., et al. “Effects of olive leaf extract on metabolic disorders and oxidative stress induced by 2.45 GHz WIFI signals.” Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 36, no. 3, 2013, pp. 826-34.

We investigated the effect of olive leaves extract administration on glucose metabolism and oxidative response in liver and kidneys of rats exposed to 2.45 GHz radiofrequency radiation (1h/day for 21 days). This exposure was shown to induce a diabetes-like status and also decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and groups thiol amount in liver and kidneys. Olive leaves extract administration (100 mg/kg, ip) in RF-exposed rats prevented glucose metabolism disruption and restored the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD and thiol group amount in liver and kidneys and was able to bring down the elevated levels of MDA in liver but not in kidneys. Our investigations suggested that RF exposure induced a diabetes-like status through alteration of oxidative response, while olive leaves extract was able to correct glucose metabolism disorder by minimizing oxidative stress induced by RF in rat tissues.

Shahin, S., et al. “2.45 GHz Microwave Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects Implantation or Pregnancy in Mice, Mus musculus.” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 169, 2013, pp. 1727–51.

The present experiment was designed to study the  2.45 GHz low-level microwave irradiation-induced stress response (continuous wave exposure for 2h/day for 45 days) and its effect on implantation or pregnancy in female mice. Researchers observed that implantation sites were affected significantly in MW-irradiated mice as compared to control and in addition to a significant increase in ROS, hemoglobin, RBC and WBC counts, N/L ratio, DNA damage in brain cells, and plasma estradiol concentration, a significant decrease was observed in NO level and antioxidant enzyme activities of MW-exposed mice. Our findings led us to conclude that a low level of MW irradiation-induced oxidative stress not only suppresses implantation, but it may also lead to deformity of the embryo in case pregnancy continues. We also suggest that MW radiation-induced oxidative stress by increasing ROS production in the body may lead to DNA strand breakage in the brain cells and implantation failure/resorption or abnormal pregnancy in mice.

Akar A., et al. “Effects of low level electromagnetic field exposure at 2.45 GHz on rat cornea.” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 89, no. 4, 2012, pp. 243-9.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low level electromagnetic field (low level-EMF) exposure, as frequently encountered in daily life (2.45 GHz, 2h/day for 21 days), on the normal adult male rat cornea using histological and stereological method. There was no statistically significant difference in mean corneal thicknesses between the groups (p > 0.05), however there were statistically differences between the groups with regard to the thickness of anterior epithelium (p < 0.05). Results of this preliminary study show that exposure to MW radiation might cause alterations in the rat cornea.

Atasoy H.I. et al. “Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices.” Journal of Pediatric Urology, vol. 9, no. 2, 2012, pp. 223-9.

The objective of this study was to investigate effects of 2.437 GHz radiofrequency radiation (24h/day for 20 weeks) emitted from indoor Wi-Fi Internet access devices on rat testes using histological and immunohistochemical methods. Researchers observed significant increases in serum 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels and 8-hydroxyguanosine staining in the testes of the experimental group indicating DNA damage due to exposure (p < 0.05) as well as decreased levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the experimental group, which may have been due to radiofrequency effects on enzyme activity (p < 0.05). These findings raise questions about the safety of radiofrequency exposure from Wi-Fi Internet access devices for growing organisms of reproductive age, with a potential effect on both fertility and the integrity of germ cells.

Avendaño, C., et al. “Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation.” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 97, no. 1, 2012, pp. 39-45.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from an internet-connected laptop via Wi-Fi for 4 hours on human sperm motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation. Donor sperm samples, mostly normozoospermic, exposed to a wireless internet-connected laptop showed a significant decrease in progressive sperm motility and an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation. We speculate that keeping a laptop connected wirelessly to the internet on the lap near the testes may result in decreased male fertility.

Ceyhan, A.M., et al. “Protective effects of β-glucan against oxidative injury induced by 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation in the skin tissue of rats.” Archives of Dermatological Research, vol. 304, no. 7,  2012, 521-527.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation (60min/day for 4 weeks) on the oxidant and antioxidant status of skin and to examine the possible protective effects of β-glucans (50 mg/kg/day before each EMR exposure) against the oxidative injury in male rats. EMR exposure caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and catalase activity, while the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in skin tissues. Systemic β-glucan significantly reversed the elevation of MDA levels and the reduction of SOD activities. β-glucan treatment also slightly enhanced the activity of CAT and prevented the depletion of GSH-Px activity caused by EMR, but not statistically significantly. The present study demonstrated the role of oxidative mechanisms in EMR-induced skin tissue damages and that β-glucan could ameliorate oxidative skin injury via its antioxidant properties.

Kesari, K.K., et al. “Pathophysiology of microwave radiation: effect on rat brain.” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 166, no. 2, 2012, pp. 379-88.

This study investigated the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (2 h/day for 45 days) on biomarkers within Wistar rats. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was recorded in the level of pineal melatonin of exposed group as compared with sham exposed, while a  significant increase (P < 0.05) in creatine kinase, caspase 3, and calcium ion concentration was observed in whole brain of exposed group of animals as compared to sham exposed. The study concludes that a reduction in melatonin or an increase in caspase-3, creatine kinase, and calcium ion may cause significant damage in brain due to chronic exposure of these radiations. These biomarkers clearly indicate possible health implications of such exposures.

Misa-Augustiño, M.J., et al. “Electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland.” Biology Open, vol. 1, no. 9, 2012, pp. 831-39.

This study examined the possible ability of  2.45 GHz microwave radiation exposure (30 min) to modify the expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Ninety minutes after radiation, HSP-90 and HSP-70 had decreased significantly (P<0.01); Twenty-four hours after radiation, HSP-90 had partially recovered and HSP-70 had recovered completely. There were few indications of lesions in the glandular structure and signs of apoptosis were negative in all radiated animals. The results suggest that acute sub-thermal radiation at 2.45 GHz may alter levels of cellular stress in rat thyroid gland without initially altering their anti-apoptotic capacity.

Nazıroğlu, M., et al. “2.45-Gz wireless devices induce oxidative stress and proliferation through cytosolic Ca2+ influx in human leukemia cancer cells.” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 88, no. 6, 2012, pp. 449–56.

The present study was designed to determine the effects of 2.45 GHz radiation (1, 2, 12, or 24 hours) on the antioxidant redox system, calcium ion signaling, cell count and viability in human leukemia 60 cells.The extent of lipid peroxidation, cytosolic free Ca²⁺ and cell numbers were higher in 2.45 GHz groups than in the controls and was time-dependent. 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation appears to induce proliferative effects through oxidative stress and Ca²⁺ influx although blocking of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 channels by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate seems to counteract the effects on Ca²⁺ ions influx.

Nazıroğlu, M., et al. “Melatonin modulates wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative injury through TRPM2 and voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in brain and dorsal root ganglion in rat.” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 105, no. 3, 2012, pp. 683-92.

We aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin and 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation (60 min/day for 30 days) on brain and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron antioxidant redox system, Ca(2+) influx, cell viability and electroencephalography (EEG) records in the rat. Lipid peroxidation (LP), cell viability and cytosolic Ca(2+) values in DRG neurons were higher in EMR-exposed groups than in controls, although their concentrations were increased by melatonin, 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borinate (2-APB), diltiazem and verapamil supplementation. Lower numbers of EEG spikes were recorded in EMR+melatonin groups than in EMR only, while brain cortex vitamin E concentrations were higher in the melatonin-supplemented group. In conclusion, Melatonin supplementation in DRG neurons and brain seems to have protective effects on the 2.45 GHz-induced increase Ca(2+) influx, EEG records and cell viability of the hormone through TRPM2 and voltage gated Ca(2+) channels.

Chaturvedi, C.M., et al. “2.45GHz (CW) microwave irradiation alters circadian organization, spatial memory, DNA structure in the brain cells and blood cell counts of male mice, Mus musculus.” Progress in  Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 29, 2011, pp. 23-42.

The present study examined the biological effects of  continuous wave 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (2h/day for 30 days)  in Parkes strain mice. The results show that microwave radiation caused an increase in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, a significant DNA strand break in brain cells and the loss of spatial memory in mice. This report for the first time provides experimental evidence that continuous exposure to low intensity microwave radiation may have an adverse effect on the brain function by altering circadian system and rate of DNA damage.

Jorge-Mora, T., et al. “The effects of single and repeated exposure to 2.45 GHz radiofrequency fields on c-Fos protein expression in the paraventricular nucleus of rat hypothalamus.” Neurochemical Research, vol. 36, no. 12, 2011, pp. 2322-32.

This study investigated the effects of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (exposed once or repeatedly – ten times in two weeks) on the cellular activation within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, extracted from rat brains. High SAR triggered an increase of the c-Fos marker 90 min or 24 h after radiation, and low SAR resulted in c-Fos counts higher than in control rats after 24 h. Repeated irradiation at 3 W increased cellular activation of PVN by more than 100% compared to animals subjected to acute irradiation and to repeated non-radiated repeated session control animals. The results suggest that PVN is sensitive to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation at non-thermal SAR levels.

Kumar, S., K.K. Kesari and J. Behari. “The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field.” Clinics (Sao Paulo), vol. 66, no. 7, 2011, pp. 1237-45.

This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of a 100 Hz pulsed electromagnetic field (2 h/day for 60 days) on the reproductive systems of male Wistar rats (70 days old).The results showed significant increases in caspase and creatine kinase and significant decreases in testosterone and melatonin in the exposed groups. This finding emphasizes that reactive oxygen species (a potential inducer of cancer) are the primary cause of DNA damage. However, pulsed electromagnetic field exposure relieves the effect of microwave exposure by inducing Faraday currents.

Oni, M.O., D.B. Amuda and C.E. Gilbert. “Effects of radiofrequency radiation from WiFi devices on human ejaculated semen.” International Journal of Recent Research and Applied Studies, vol. 9, no. 2, 2011, pp. 292-4.

This study was an in-vitro pilot study which established the effect of radiofrequency radiation from 2.4 GHz laptop antenna on human semen. A test of significance between results of semen parameters using Mann-Whitney U- test at 0.05 level of significance showed a significant effect of RFR exposure on  sperm concentration, motility and morphology grading.

Papageorgio, C.C., et al. “Effects of Wi-Fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task.” Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 2, 2011, pp. 189-202.

The present study focused on the possible gender-related effects of Wi-Fi electromagnetic fields on these processes in human males and females. P300 amplitude values at 18 electrodes were found to be significantly lower in the response inhibition condition than in the response initiation and baseline conditions and independent of this effect, within the response inhibition condition there was also a significant gender X radiation interaction effect of males in comparison to female subjects only at the presence of EMF. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that Wi-Fi exposure may exert gender-related alterations on neural activity associated with the amount of attentional resources engaged during a linguistic test adjusted to induce WM.

Türker, Y., et al. “Selenium and L-carnitine reduce oxidative stress in the heart of rat induced by 2.45-GHz radiation from wireless devices.” Biological Trace Element Research, vol 143, no. 3, 2011, pp. 1640-50.

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of selenium and L-carnitine on oxidative stress induced by 2.45-GHz radiation (60min/day for 28 days) in heart of rat. Electromagnetic radiation exposure was found to cause oxidative stress in the heart of rats. There is also an apparent protective effect of selenium and L-carnitine by inhibition of free radical formation and support of the antioxidant redox system.

Grigoriev, Y.G., et al. “Confirmation studies of Soviet research on immunological effects of microwaves: Russian immunology results.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 31, no. 8, 2010, pp. 589-602.

This paper presents the results of a replication study performed to investigate earlier Soviet studies conducted between 1974 and 1991 that showed immunological and reproductive effects of long-term low-level exposure of rats to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (continuous wave 2450 MHz for 7h/day, 5days/week for 30 days). The RF exposure resulted in minor increases in formation of antibodies in brain tissue extract and the exposure did not appear to be pathological. In addition, a study was conducted to replicate a previous Soviet study on effects from the injection of blood serum from RF-exposed rats on pregnancy and foetal and offspring development of rats, using a similar animal model and protocol. Our results showed the same general trends as the earlier study, suggesting possible adverse effects of the blood serum from exposed rats on pregnancy and foetal development of intact rats, however, application of these results in developing exposure standards is limited.

Kesari, K.K., et al. “Mutagenic response of 2.45 GHz radiation exposure on rat brain.”  International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 86, no. 4, 2010, pp. 334-43.

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (2 h/day for 35 days) on the male rat brain. MWR-exposed rats showed significantly increased comet head, tail length and tail movement, as well as decrease of antioxidant enzymes. Researchers conclude that the chronic exposure to these radiations may cause significant damage to brain, which may be an indication of possible tumour promotion.

Kesari, K.K. and J. Behari. “Effects of microwave at 2.45 GHz radiations on reproductive system of male rats.” Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, vol. 92, no. 6, 2010, pp. 1135-47.

The present study was performed to investigate the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (2 h/day for 35 days) on reproductive pattern of male Wistar rats. Chronic exposure to these radiations produced formation of apoptotic cells in testis. In addition, a significant decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities as well as an increase in catalase activity was observed in the exposed group. These results indicate that a low level exposure of microwave radiations exerts a negative impact on male reproductive system function.

Maganioti, A. E., et al. “Wi-Fi electromagnetic fields exert gender related alterations on EEG.” 6th International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic fields, 2010.

The present study investigated the influence of 2.4GHz electromagnetic fields, similar to that emitted by Wi-Fi system, on human brain activity. The presence of radiation had no effect on the energies of alpha and beta band of male subjects, while it reduced these energies of female subjects, resulting in significantly lower energies, as compared to those of males. Delta and theta band energies did not experience any noteworthy effect from gender, radiation condition and their interaction. Conversely, there was a significant interaction effect (gender x radiation) on the energies of alpha and beta rhythms. The present data support the idea that Wi-Fi signal may influence normal physiology through changes in gender related cortical excitability, as reflected by alpha and beta EEG frequencies.

Gumral, N., et al. “Effects of selenium and L-carnitine on oxidative stress in blood of rat induced by 2.45-GHz radiation from wireless devices.” Biological Trace Elements Research, vol. 132, no. 1-3, 2009,  pp. 153-63.

This study measured the levels of blood lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and vitamin C to follow the level of oxidative damage caused by 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation exposure (60 min/day for 28 days) in rats. The possible protective effects of selenium and L-carnitine were also tested and compared to untreated controls.  Researchers found that 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation caused oxidative stress in blood of rat. L-carnitine seems to have protective effects on the 2.45-GHz-induced blood toxicity by inhibiting free radical supporting antioxidant redox system although selenium has no effect on the investigated values.

Naziroğlu, M. and N. Gumral. “Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat.” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol 85, no. 8, 2009, pp. 680-9.

The present study was designed to determine the effects of 2.45 GHz EMR (60 min/day for 28 days) on the brain antioxidant redox system and electroencephalography (EEG) records in rat, as well as examine the possible protective effects of selenium and L-carnitine. EMR-exposed animals showed lower concentration of vitamins A, C, and E than controls, although their concentrations were increased by selenium and L-carnitine supplementation. Animals which received selenium and L-carnitine in addition to EMR also showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Results indicate that L-carnitine and selenium seem to have protective effects on the 2.45 GHz-induced decrease of the vitamins by supporting antioxidant redox system.

Sinha, R.K. “Chronic non-thermal exposure of modulated 2450 MHz microwave radiation alters thyroid hormones and behavior of male rats.” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 84, no. 6, 2008, pp. 505-13.

The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effects of chronic 2.45 GHz leakage microwave irradiation on thyroid hormones and behavior of male rats. Behavioral changes were found to be significantly changed from controls for immobilization, rearing and ambulation behavior. Changes in behavioral parameters are also correlated with the trend of changes, compared to control animals, in hormonal blood levels of T3 and T4. Researchers concluded that low energy microwave irradiation may be harmful as it is sufficient to alter the levels of thyroid hormones as well as the emotional reactivity of the irradiated compared to control animals.

Paulra,j R. and J. Behari. “Single strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells exposed to microwave radiation.” Mutation Research, vol 596, no. 1-2, 2006, pp. 76-80.

This investigation concerns with the effect of low intensity microwave (2.45 and 16.5 GHz, SAR 1.0 and 2.01 W/kg, respectively) radiation on developing rat brain when exposed for 35 days.  Results showed that the chronic exposure to these radiations caused statistically significant (p<0.001) increase in DNA single strand breaks in brain cells of rat.

Paulraj R. and Behari J. “Protein kinase C activity in developing rat brain cells exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 25, no. 1, 2006,  pp. 61-70.

This experiment investigated the effects of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation exposure (2h/day for 35 days) on the developing rat brain.The study revealed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease in protein kinase C activity in hippocampus as compared to the remaining portion of the whole brain and the control group, while a similar experiment conducted on hippocampus and the whole brain gave a similar result. Electron microscopic study shows an increase in the glial cell population in the exposed group as compared to the control group. This present study is indicative of a significant change after exposure to the above-mentioned field intensity, which suggests that chronic exposures may affect brain growth and development.

Chou, C.K., et al. “Long-term, low-level microwave irradiation of rats.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 13, no. 6, 1992, pp. 469–96.

This study investigated the effects of long-term exposure to 2.45 GHz pulsed microwave radiation. The major emphasis was to expose a large sample of experimental animals throughout their lifetimes (21.5h/day for 25 months, starting at 8 weeks) and to monitor them for effects on general health and longevity. Results showed negative overall effects of RFR on general health, longevity, cause of death, or lesions associated with aging and benign neoplasia. Positive findings of effects were found on corticosterone levels and immune system. A statistically significant increase in primary malignancies in exposed rats vs. incidence in control was also found.

Somosy, Z., et al. “Effects of modulated and continuous microwave irradiation on the morphology and cell surface negative charge of 3T3 fibroblasts.” Scanning Microscope, vol. 5, no. 4, 1991, pp. 1145-55.

Mouse embryo 3T3 cells were irradiated with 2450 MHz continuous and low frequency (16 Hz) square modulated waves of absorbed energy. The low frequency modulated microwave irradiation yielded more morphological cell changes than did the continuous microwave fields of the same intensity. The amount of free negative charges (cationized ferritin binding) on cell surfaces decreased following irradiation by modulated waves but remained unchanged under the effect of a continuous field of the same dose. Modulated waves of 0.024 mW/g dose increased the ruffling activity of the cells, and caused ultrastructural alteration in the cytoplasm. Similar effects were experienced by continuous waves at higher (0.24 and 2.4 mW/g) doses.

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