Resources For Pediatricians Health Professionals on Cell Phones Wireless and Health

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Children and pregnant women are most at risk from cell phone and wireless exposures. For children, cancer risks may be greater than that for adults because of greater penetration and absorption of cell phone radiation in the brains of children and because the developing nervous system of children is more susceptible to tissue damaging agents.

“The average RF energy deposition is twice as high in certain regions of children’s brains and up to 10 times higher in the bone marrow of children’s skulls, compared to energy deposition in adult brains and skulls.”

—The World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph on Radio Frequency Fields

Doctors are in a unique position to directly educate their patients and their families. This page contains resources for pediatricians including research studies, educational resources, and links to learn more.

The US National Toxicology Program released final reports o their $25 million animal study on long-term exposure to radiofrequency EMF radiation. They found statistically significant increases in DNA damage, heart damage, increased brain tumors (malignant gliomas)and increased heart tumors (malignant schwannomas). The heart tumors were  deemed “clear evidence of cancer.” Researchers with the renowned Ramazzini Institute in Italy published findings in 2018 that lab animals exposed to environmental levels of RF-EMF developed the same types of cancers the US National Toxicology Program found in their large-scale lifetime animal study (Falcioni 2018). The findings from these animal studies corroborate the research results from long term case control studies in humans which found increased in tumors of the same cell types- schwannomas and gliomas. Seven years ago, in 2011, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields were classified as a Group 2B possible carcinogen by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer based on this research that found increases of acoustic neuromas and brain cancers in humans using cell phones long term. Now, in 2018, several prominent scientists have concluded that the body of current research substantially strengthens evidence that RF-EMF causes cancer, and they conclude that RF-EMF can be regarded as a human carcinogen (Hardell and Carlberg, 2017, Peleg et al., 2018, Miller et al., 2018).

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that families develop home rules to limit digital devices and that children under age two have no screen time. The AAP has also advised the US government to reassess and strengthen regulations regarding human exposure to wireless radiation that have not been altered since 1996. In multiple letters, the AAP states that children and pregnant women need more protections and that regulations must account for the real world use of phones and wireless devices, pointing to research that indicates children’s brains and bodies absorb proportionately more wireless radiation due to their unique physiology and lack of myelination.

The California Department of Health, the Connecticut Department of Health, many international health organizations and medical associations and more than 20 governments are recommending wireless exposure reduction, especially for children. Although institutions such as the Cleveland Clinic and Mayo Clinic advise men to keep phones and wireless devices away from their reproductive organs, the public remains largely unaware.

Some examples of the latest research on electromagnetic radiation includes:

  • A study (Foerster 2018) on adolescents found decreased memory scores with higher RF exposures to the brain after one year. The Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute used company data records, personal measurement devices and sophisticated brain modeling research to estimate the RFR dose to the grey matter of the brain. This study was a follow up to Shoeni 2015 that also found higher RF exposure linked to impaired memory in adolescents.
  • Kaiser Permanente researchers have published several studies linking pregnant women’s exposure to magnetic EMF fields to increased miscarriage, and in the women’s prenatally exposed children to increased asthma and obesity. Dr. De-Kun Li of Kaiser presented this research in a webinar with The Collaborative on Health and the Environment.
  • A research team, led by Dr. Hugh Taylor, Chief of Obstetrics at Yale Medicine, found that prenatal EMF exposure led to higher hyperactivity, poorer memory and altered brain function — corroborating prior published research findings of altered brain development after exposure. These studies prompted 250 doctors and other child health experts to initiate an EPA recognized educational campaign called The BabySafe Project urging pregnant women to reduce wireless exposure to minimize risks to brain development.
  • A technical review concluded that EMF induced oxidative stress and free radicals — an effect known to lead to a myriad of chronic diseases — in the majority (93 out of 100) of studies.
  • Studies consistently find that wireless radiation alters sleep patterns in both animals and humans. For example, study found an hour of exposure to RF-EMF caused a one-hour delay for rats to drift into REM or deep sleep. Research consistently finds alterations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during sleep in randomized crossover studies of people exposed to phone radiation prior to sleep (Loughran et al. 2012; Lustenberger et al. 2013; Regel et al. 2007; Schmid et al. 2012). Lustenberger et al. 2013 also observed reduced performance in a motor sequence task after a night with RF-EMF exposure compared with the sham condition.

Please be aware of the organization Physicians for Safe Technology “We are a group of physicians and health professionals whose mission is to provide trusted leadership in promoting, healthy and safe environments through the safer use of technology at home, in schools, in the workplace, in healthcare settings and in communities. Our aim is to prevent acute and chronic diseases by encouraging understanding of the connection between the public, psychosocial and environmental health effects of using modern technology.”

PEDIATRIC NURSING

Suzanne Rosenberg, CEU Cell Phones and Children: Follow the Precautionary Road Pediatric Nursing, 2013 Mar-Apr; 39(2):65-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23705297, FULL PDF of Article

  • “Children are increasingly using cell phones. “Family package” deals make it easy for parents to obtain phones for their children, and the phones provide parents with the comfort of easy access to their children. However, cell phones emit radio frequency (RF) radiation (Bucher & the Committee on Appropriations, 2010). While the government has deemed RF radiation to be safe, there is no current significant research to make this claim. To determine the relationship between cell phone radiation and brain cancer requires long-term studies lasting decades and with inclusion of frequent users in the subject pool. Further, to extend the results of any study to children requires controlling for the differences between juveniles and adults regarding the composition of the head, and bone density and neural tissue. Dr. L. Hardell of the University Hospital of Sweden noted that “it is necessary to apply the precautionary principle in this situation,” especially for long-term exposure that is likely to affect children (Hardell as cited in Mead, 2008, p. 1). There is cause for concern.”

TREATMENT PROTOCOLS

The Austrian Medical Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of EMF related Health Problems

The Austrian Medical Association has developed a guideline for differential diagnosis and treatment of health problems associated with outdoor and indoor electrosmog. Guidelines of the Austrian Medical Association for the diagnosis and treatment of EMF related health problems and illnesses (EMF syndrome)

Calming Behavior in Children with Autism and ADHD: Dr. Toril Jelter’s  Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR)-Lowering Protocol (That Has No Cost Or Side Effects)

Treatment Protocol for Autism by Dietrich Klinghardt MD, PhD

Technology Unplug Protocol by Occupational Therapist Chris Rowan

ARTICLES

“Wi-Fi in School: Are We Playing It Safe With Our Kids?” The Santa Clara County Medical Association Bulletin March/April 2015

HOW MIGHT EMF CONTRIBUTE TO AUTISM?” by Martha R. Herbert, Ph.D., M.D.

Connections in our Environment: Sizing up Electromagnetic Fields, Autism Notebook Spring 2015, pp. 24-25  

Children and cell phones: is phone radiation risky for kids?” National Center for Health Research:

Pediatricians Say Cell Phone Radiation Standards Need Another LookTime Magazine:

RESOURCES
Download PDF Doctors Letters on Children and the Health Risks of Wireless

The BabySafe Project: Doctors joining together to educate pregnant women on how to reduce their risk.

Click to read the American Academy of Pediatrics Cell Phone Safety Tips for Families
The American Academy of Pediatrics has issued the following cell phone safety tips specifically to reduce exposure to wireless radiation:

Cell Phone Safety Tips for Families:

  • Use text messaging when possible, and use cell phones in speaker mode or with the use of hands-free kits.
  • When talking on the cell phone, try holding it an inch or more away from your head.
  • Make only short or essential calls on cell phones.
  • Avoid carrying your phone against the body like in a pocket, sock, or bra. Cell phone manufacturers can’t guarantee that the amount of radiation you’re absorbing will be at a safe level.
  • Do not talk on the phone or text while driving. This increases the risk of automobile crashes.
  • Exercise caution when using a phone or texting while walking or performing other activities. “Distracted walking” injuries are also on the rise.
  • If you plan to watch a movie on your device, download it first, then switch to airplane mode while you watch in order to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure.
  • Keep an eye on your signal strength (i.e. how many bars you have). The weaker your cell signal, the harder your phone has to work and the more radiation it gives off. It’s better to wait until you have a stronger signal before using your device.
  • Avoid making calls in cars, elevators, trains, and buses. The cell phone works harder to get a signal through metal, so the power level increases.
  • Remember that cell phones are not toys or teething items.

https://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/all-around/Pages/Cell-Phone-Radiation-Childrens-Health.aspx

Research to Know 

Anthony B. Miller, L. Lloyd Morgan, Iris Udasin, Devra Lee Davis, Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102), Environmental Research, Volume 167, 2018, Pages 673-683, ISSN 0013-9351

Fernández, A.A. de Salles, M.E. Sears, R.D. Morris, D.L. Davis, Absorption of wireless radiation in the child versus adult brain and eye from cell phone conversation or virtual reality, Environmental Research, 2018, , ISSN 0013-9351

Ronald L. Melnick, Commentary on the utility of the National Toxicology Program study on cell phone radiofrequency radiation data for assessing human health risks despite unfounded criticisms aimed at minimizing the findings of adverse health effects, Environmental Research, Volume 168, 2019, Pages 1-6, ISSN 0013-9351

Adams, Jessica A., et al. “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Environmental International, vol. 70, 2014, pp. 106-12.

Aldad, Tamir S., et al. “Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 Mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice.” Scientific Reports, vol. 2, no. 312, 2012.

Alster, Norm. “Captured agency: How the Federal Communications Commission is dominated by the industries it presumably regulates.” Edmund J. Safra Center for Ethics, Harvard University, 2015.  

Atasoy, Halil I., et al. “Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices.” Journal of Pediatric Urology, vol. 9, no. 2, 2013, pp. 223-9.

Avendano, Conrado, et al. “Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation.” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 97, no. 1, 2012, pp. 39-45.

Balmori, Alfonso. “Anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as an emerging threat to wildlife orientation.” Science of the Total Environment 518-519 (2015): 58-60.

Barnes, Frank, and Ben Greenebaum. “Some Effects of Weak Magnetic Fields on Biological Systems: RF fields can change radical concentrations and cancer cell growth rates.” IEEE Power Electronics Magazine, vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, pp. 60-8.

Belyaev, Igor Y., et al. “Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long‐lasting inhibition of 53BP1/γ‐H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 30, no. 2, 2009, pp. 129-41.

Belyaev, I.Y., et al. “Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol 27, no. 4, 2006, pp. 295-306.

Bortkiewicz, Alicja, Elzbieta Gadzicka and Wieslaw Szymczak. “Mobile phone use and risk of intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors – A meta-analysis.” International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, vol. 30, no. 1, 2017, pp. 27-43.

Byun, Yoon-Hwan, et al. “Mobile phone use, blood lead levels, and attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children: a longitudinal study.” PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 3, 2013.

Byun, Yoon-Hwan, et al. “Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study. PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 3, 2013.

Cardis, Elisabeth, et al. “Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 68, no. 9, 2011, pp. 631-40.

Carlberg, Michael and Lennart Hardell. “Decreased survival of glioma patients with astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) associated with long-term use of mobile and cordless phones.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 11, no. 10, 2014, pp. 10790-805.

Carlberg, Michael and Lennart Hardell. “Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation.” BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, 2017.

Carlberg, Michael, et al. “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.” BMC Cancer, vol. 16, no. 426, 2016. DOWNLOAD PDF

Coureau, Gaëlle, et al. “Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 71, no. 7, 2014, pp. 514-22. DOWNLOAD PDF

Cucurachi, S., et al. “A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).” Environment International 51 (2013): 116-40.

Divan, Hozefa A., et al. “Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children.” Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, vol 66, no. 6, 2012, pp. 524-9.

Fernández-Rodríguez, Claudio Enrique, Alvaro Augusto Almeida De Salles, and Devra Lee Davis. “Dosimetric Simulations of Brain Absorption of Mobile Phone Radiation–The Relationship Between psSAR and Age.” IEEE Access vol. 3, 2015, pp. 2425-30. DOWNLOAD PDF

Ferreira, Juliana Borges, and Álvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles. “Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet users.” 7th Latin American Workshop On Communications, 2015.

Gandhi, Om P., et al. “Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 31, no. 1, 2012, pp. 34-51.

Gultekin, David H., and Lothar Moeller. “NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 110, no. 1, 2013, pp. 58-63.

Hardell, Lennart and Michael Carlberg. “Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma–Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009.” Pathophysiology, vol. 22, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1-13.

Hardell, Lennart and Michael Carlberg. “Using the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones.” Reviews on Environmental Health, vol. 28, no. 2-3, 2013, pp. 97-106.

Hardell, Lennart, Michael Carlberg, and David Gee. “Mobile phone use and brain tumour risk: early warnings, early actions?” Late Lessons from Early Warnings, pt. 2, pp. 509-29, 2012.

Houston, B.J., et al. “The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function.” Reproduction, vol. 152, no. 2, 2016, pp. R263-76.

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. “IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields.” IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans/World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer vol. 102 (2013).

Kostoff, Ronald N., and Clifford GY Lau. “Combined biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields and other agents in the published literature.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change vol. 80, no. 7, 2013, no. 1331-49.

Leszczynski, Dariusz, et al. “Non‐thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer‐and blood‐brain barrier‐related effects.” Differentiation, vol. 70, no. 2‐3, 2002, pp. 120-9.

Lerchl, Alexander, et al. “Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 459, no. 4, 2015, pp. 585-90.

Markovà, Eva, Lars OG Malmgren, and Igor Y. Belyaev. “Microwaves from mobile phones inhibit 53BP1 focus formation in human stem cells more strongly than in differentiated cells: possible mechanistic link to cancer risk.” Environ Health Perspect, vol. 118, no. 3, 2010, pp. 394-9.

Pall, Martin L. “EMFs act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects.” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 17, no. 8, 2013, pp. 958-65.

Papageorgiou, Charalabos C., et al. “Effects of wi-fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task.” Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 2, 2011, pp. 189-202.

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J., Olle Johansson, and George L. Carlo. “Real versus simulated mobile phone exposures in experimental studies.” BioMed Research International, 2015. DOWNLOAD PDF

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J., Olle Johansson, and George L. Carlo. “Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity.” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, no. 12914, 2015.

Prasad, M., et al. “Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes.” Neurological Sciences, 2017. DOWNLOAD PDF

Redmayne, Mary. “International policy and advisory response regarding children’s exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, 2016, pp. 176-85.

Schoeni et al., Memory performance, wireless communication and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: A prospective cohort study in adolescents, Environ Int. 2015 Dec;85:343-51. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.025. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho, et al. “Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, vol. 45, 2016, pp. 682-6.

Soffritti, Morando, et al. “Synergism between sinusoidal-50 Hz magnetic field and formaldehyde in triggering carcinogenic effects in male Sprague–Dawley rats.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 59, no. 7, 2016, pp. 509-21.

Soffritti, Morando, et al. “Life-span exposure to sinusoidal-50 Hz magnetic field and acute low-dose γ radiation induce carcinogenic effects in Sprague-Dawley rats.” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 92, no. 4, 2016, pp. 202-14.

Verloock, Leen, et al. “Assessment of Radio Frequency Exposures in Schools, Homes, and Public Places in  Belgium.” Health Physics, vol. 107, no. 6, 2014, pp. 503-13. DOWNLOAD PDF

Volkow, Nora D., et al. “Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism.” JAMA, vol. 305, no. 8, 2011, pp. 808-13.

Wang Y. and X. Guo. “Meta-analysis of association between mobile phone use and glioma risk.” Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, vol. 12, 2016, pp. 238-300.

West et al., Multifocal Breast Cancer in Young Women with Prolonged Contact between Their Breasts and Their Cellular Phones, Case Reports in Medicine Volume 2013

Wyde, Michael, et al. “Report of Partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure).”  

Yakymenko, Igor, et al. “Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, 2016, pp 186-202.

Click here to read the California Medical Association Wireless Resolution 12/2014

California Medical Association
House of Delegates Resolution Wireless Standards Reevaluation 2014

PASSED

CMA 2014 HOD Resolutions Adopted
Resolution 107- 14
Date Adopted Dec 7, 2014

 

Resolved 1    That CMA supports efforts to reevaluate microwave safety exposure levels associated with wireless communication devices, including consideration of adverse non-thermal biologic and health effects from non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation used in wireless communications; and be it further

Resolved 2    That CMA support efforts to implement new safety exposure limits for wireless devices to levels that do not cause human or environmental harm based on scientific research.

See below documentation introduced to the California Medical Association that lead to the passing of the above resolution. 

CALIFORNIA MEDICAL ASSOCIATION HOUSE OF DELEGATES 2014
Wireless Communications Public Safety Standards Reevaluation
Introduced by Cindy Lee Russell, M.D. AND Ken Yew, M.D.  

Whereas there are over 6 billion active cell phones worldwide and dependence of wireless communication networks is rapidly expanding including cell phones, cell towers, wireless routers for home use, medical devices and utility smart meters; and (1)

Whereas scientists are increasingly identifying EMF from wireless devices as a new form of environmental pollution with a growing body of peer reviewed scientific evidence finding significant adverse health and biologic effects on living organisms with exposure to low levels of non-ionizing microwaves currently approved and used in wireless communication, and

Whereas peer reviewed research has demonstrated adverse biological effects of wireless EMF including single and double stranded DNA breaks, creation of reactive oxygen species, immune dysfunction, cognitive processing effects, stress protein synthesis in the brain, altered brain development, sleep and memory disturbances, ADHD, abnormal behavior, sperm dysfunction, and brain tumors; and  (2-55)

Whereas there is a long latency period of years to decades to study and identify adverse health effects such as brain cancer, neurodegenerative damage and autism; and

Whereas children’s brains are developmentally immature until adolescence, their skulls are thinner and the brain is considerably more vulnerable to toxin exposure , and (23,24)

Whereas the World Health Organization in 2011 designated wireless communications including cell phones to be a possible carcinogenic, and (63)

Whereas many scientists, researchers, public health officials and agencies conclude that wireless electromagnetic frequency (EMF) standards established by the Federal Communications Commission are outdated as they are based only on heat effects which damage to the organism and not biological effects of non –ionizing EMF microwave radiation which are scientifically demonstrated at levels hundreds of times less than current safety exposure limits and thus current standards are  inadequate to protect public health; and (49-51)(57)

Whereas the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2013 has asked for reassessment of  exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields limits and policies  that  protect children’s health and well-being  throughout their lifetimes and reflect current use patterns (58)

RESOLVED; that the CMA understands that  existing public safety limits for microwave EMF devices are outdated and inadequate to protect public health  thus endorses efforts of the Federal Communications Commission to reevaluate its safety standards to include consideration of adverse non thermal biologic and health effects from non ionizing electromagnetic radiation used in wireless communications; and be it further

RESOLVED; that the CMA supports efforts to implement microwave safety exposure limits to levels that do not cause human or environmental harm based on scientific research, and be it further

RESOLVED; that the CMA set up a task force to determine adequate precautionary recommendations for the use of cell phones and wireless devices for schools and children

References Wireless Communications Public Safety Standards Reevaluation

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  13. Association between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use. Moon S. Tumour Biol. Jan 2014; 35(1): 581–587. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3907669/
  14. Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumors: increased risk associated with use for > or =10 years. Hardell L, Carlsberg M. Occupational Environmental Medicine 2007, Sept; 64(9):626-32 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17409179
  15. Meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and the association with brain tumors. Hardell L  International Journal of Oncology. May 2008 vol 32 Number 5. http://www.spandidos-publications.com/ijo/article.jsp?article_id=ijo_32_5_1097
  16. Cell phone Use and Acoustic Neuroma: The Need for Standardized Questionaires and access to Industry Data. Surgical Neurology. Volume 72, issue 3, pages 216-222 (Sept 2009) Yueh-Ying Han. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/24241041_Cell_phone_use_and_acoustic_neuroma_the_need_for_standardized_questionnaires_and_access_to_industry_data
  17. Exposure to Wireless Phone Emissions and Serum Bets-Trace Proteins. Hardell L. Soderqvist F. International Journal Molecular Medicine. 2010 August; 26(2):301-306. http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Exposure-to-wireless-phone-emissions/20596612.html
  18. Mobile Phone Use and the Risk for Malignant Brain Tumors: A Case Control Study on Deceased Cases and Controls. Hardell L, Carlsberg M, Neuroepidemiology: 2010 June 15;35(2): 109-114. http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/Hardell_et_al_Neuroepidemiology_2010.pdf
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  25. Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells.  Yao K .  Mol Vis.  2008 May 19;14:964-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18509546
  26. Neuronal Death and Oxidative Stress in the Developing Brain.  Chrysanthy Ikonomidou.  ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING Volume 00, Number 0, 2011.  https://neurology.wisc.edu/publications/2010%20Pubs/Ikonomidou-5.pdf
  27. Reactive oxygen species elevation and recovery in Drosophila bodies and ovaries following short-term and long-term exposure to DECT base EMF.  Manta AK .  Electromagn Biol Med.  2014 Jun;33(2):118-31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23781995
  28. Protective effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester against retinal oxidative stress in long-term use of mobile phone: a comparative study. Ozguner F.  Mol Cell Biochem.  2006 Jan; 282(1-2):83-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16317515
  29. Autism-relevant social abnormalities in mice exposed perinatally to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970316
  30. Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources.  Margaritis LH .  Electromagn Biol Med.  2014 Sep;33(3):165-89. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23915130
  31. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation induces oxidative DNA base damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line. Liu C. Toxicol Lett. 2013 Mar 27;218(1):2-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23333639
  32. [Metabolic changes in cells under electromagnetic radiation of mobile communication systems].  Iakimenko. IL. Ukr Biokhim Zh. 2011 Mar-Apr;83(2):20-8.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21851043
  33. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects.  Leszczynski D.  Differentiation.  2002 May;70(2-3):120-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12076339
  34. Effect of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation on oxidative stress in rat brain and serum.  Bilgici B.  Electromagn Biol Med. 2013 Mar;32(1):20-9.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23301880
  35. Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Júnior LC .  Neurol Res. 2014 Sep;36(9):800-3.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620965
  36. Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR) on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in Wistar rats. Narayanan SN. Ups J Med Sci. 2010 May;115(2):91-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095879
  37. Analysis of emotionality and locomotion in radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation exposed rats.  Narayanan SN. Neurol Sci.  2013 Jul;34(7):1117-24.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22976773
  38. Evaluation of oxidant stress and antioxidant defense in discrete brain regions of rats exposed to 900 MHz radiation. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2014;115(5):260-6.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174055
  39. Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice.  Aldid, T.Nature. Scientific Reports  2, Article number: 312. Feb 18, 2013. http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120315/srep00312/full/srep00312.html
  40. Cell phone radiation exposure on brain and associated biological systems. Kesari KK. Indian J Exp Biol. 2013 Mar;51(3):187-200. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23678539
  41. Disturbance of the immune system by electromagnetic fields-A potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment. Johansson O. Pathophysiology. 2009 Aug;16(2-3):157-77. Epub 2009 Apr 23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19398310
  42. Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. Divan HA . J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Jun;66(6):524-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21138897
  43. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioral problems in children. Divan HA. Epidemiology. 2008 Jul;19(4):523-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18467962
  44. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children. Guxens M. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 May;67(5):432-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23386674
  45. Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats. Mailankot M. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(6):561-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19578660
  46. Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature. La Vignera S. J Androl. 2012 May-Jun;33(3):350-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799142
  47. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study.  Agarwal A.  Fertil Steril.  2009 Oct;92(4):1318-25.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804757
  48. Bioinitiative 2012. http://www.bioinitiative.org/conclusions/
  49. Autism and EMF/RFR?  Plausibility of a Pathophysiological Link-Part I. Pathophysiology Volume 20, Issue 3, 191-209, June 2013. Herbert M, Sage C (2013).  http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680(13)00037-0/fulltext
  50. Autism and EMF/RFR? Plausibility of a Pathophysiological Link-Part II. Pathophysiology Volume 20, Issue 3 , 211-234, June 2013. Herbert M, Sage C (2013)  http://apps.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=7520958031
  51. BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for Biologically-based Public Exposure Standards for Electromagnetic Radiation. December 31, 2012. BioInitiative Working Group, Cindy Sage and David O. Carpenter. http://www.bioinitiative.org/
  52. Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk from Mobile Phone Base Stations.
    International Journal of Occupational Environmental Health: 16-3, Jul/Sep 2010, p263-267. Khurana V, Hardell L . http://www.brain-surgery.us/Khurana_et_al_IJOEH-Base_Station_RV.pdf
  53. Shallow Minds: How the Internet and Wi–Fi in Schools Can Affect Learning.  Cindy Lee Russell, MD. Oct 2013 issue SCCMA Bulletin.  http://issuu.com/18621/docs/bulletin_1013_web or http://www.sccma-mcms.org/Portals/19/assets/docs/Wi-Fi%20in%20Schools%20rev.pdf for full references
  54. Autism Rising Part 1. Dr. Cindy Russell. May/June SCCMA Bulletin 2014
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  55. Autism Rising Part 2. Dr. Cindy Russell. SCMA Bulletin 2014  http://www.sccma-mcms.org/NewsEvents/BulletinMemberMagazine.aspx  or  http://www.sccma-mcms.org/Portals/19/assets/docs/Autism%20Rising%20Part%202%20rev.pdf
  56. Scientific panel on electromagnetic field health risks: consensus points, recommendations, and rationales. Fragopoulou A. Rev Environ Health. 2010 Oct-Dec;25(4):307-17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21268443
  57. Letter American Academy of Pediatrics to FDA on “Reassessment of Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Limits and Policies” published in the Federal Register on June 4, 2013. http://apps.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=7520941318
  58. Wired vs Wireless in Classrooms. Letter to Los Angeles Unified School District. Feb 2013 from Martha Herbert, Assistant Professor Pediatric Neurology, Harvard Medical School. http://apps.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=7520940748
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  61. WiFi in schools proven dangerous. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KN7VetsCR2I&feature=related
  62. Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs193/en/

Cell Phones: Technology, Exposures, Health Effects by Environment and Human Health, Inc. lead authors from Yale School of Medicine.

RESEARCH STUDIES TO KNOW - Click here for a sampling of research
A Sampling of Research on The Health Effects of Wireless Radiation

Cancer and Cancer Promotion

Wyde, Michael, et al. “Report of Partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure).” bioRxiv, 055699 (2016). (National Toxicology Program Video Presentation June 2016)

Lloyd Morgan, et al. “Are Third Generation Cellphones with Lower Radiated Power More Carcinogenic Than Second Generation Cellphones?–An Exploration of Recent Data.” Bioelectromagnetics Society and the European BioElectromagnetics (2016).

Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. “Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma–Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009.” Pathophysiology 22.1 (2015): 1-13.

Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. “Using the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones.” Reviews on Environmental Health 28.2-3 (2013): 97-106.

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. “IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields.” IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans/World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer vol. 102 (2013).

Cardis, Elisabeth, et al. “Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68.9 (2011): 631-40.

Coureau, Gaëlle, et al. “Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 71.7 (2014): 514-22.

Lerchl, Alexander, et al. “Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 459.4 (2015): 585-90.

Morgan, L. Lloyd, et al. “Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A)(Review).” International Journal of Oncology 46.5 (2015): 1865-71.

Carlberg, Michael, and Lennart Hardell. “Decreased survival of glioma patients with astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) associated with long-term use of mobile and cordless phones.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11.10 (2014): 10790-805.

Grell, Kathrine, et al. “The Intracranial Distribution of Gliomas in Relation to Exposure From Mobile Phones: Analyses From the INTERPHONE Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology 184.11 (2016): 818-28.

Carlberg, Michael, et al. “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.” BMC Cancer 16.426 (2016).

Parotid Gland Tumor

Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho, et al. “Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 45 (2016): 682-6.

Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho, et al. “Does cell phone use increase the chances of parotid gland tumor development? A systematic review and meta‐analysis.” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine (2016).

Neurodevelopment and Neurological

Aldad, Tamir S., et al. “Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice.” Scientific Reports 2.312 (2012).

Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao, et al. “Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation.” International Journal of Toxicology 34.3 (2015): 284-90.

Tang, Jun, et al. “Exposure to 900MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats.” Brain Research 1601 (2015): 92-101.

Bas, O., et al. “Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 25.6 (2009): 377-84.

Volkow, Nora D., et al. “Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism.” JAMA 305.8 (2011): 808-13.

Herbert, Martha R., and Cindy Sage. “Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link–Part I.” Pathophysiology 20.3: 191-209.

Herbert, Martha R., and Cindy Sage. “Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II.” Pathophysiology 20.3 (2013): 211-234.

Reviews on Biological Effects

Balmori, Alfonso. “Anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as an emerging threat to wildlife orientation.” Science of the Total Environment 518-519 (2015): 58-60.

Cucurachi, S., et al. “A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).” Environment International 51 (2013): 116-40.

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J., Olle Johansson, and George L. Carlo. “Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity.” Scientific Reports 5.12914 (2015).

Yakymenko, Igor, et al. “Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 35.2 (2016): 186-202.

Reproduction

Avendano, Conrado, et al. “Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation.” Fertility and Sterility 97.1 (2012): 39-45.

Adams, Jessica A., et al. “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Environment International 70 (2014): 106-12.

Atasoy, Halil I., et al. “Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices.” Journal of Pediatric Urology 9.2 (2013): 223-9.

Exposure Assessment

Fernández-Rodríguez, Claudio Enrique, Alvaro Augusto Almeida De Salles, and Devra Lee Davis. “Dosimetric Simulations of Brain Absorption of Mobile Phone Radiation–The Relationship Between psSAR and Age.” IEEE Access 3 (2015): 2425-30.

Gandhi, Om P., et al. “Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 31.1 (2012): 34-51.

Ferreira, Juliana Borges, and Álvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles. “Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet user’s.” 7th Latin American Workshop On Communications (2015).

Findlay, R. P., and P. J. Dimbylow. “SAR in a child voxel phantom from exposure to wireless computer networks (Wi-Fi).” Physics in Medicine and Biology 55.15 (2010): N405-11.

Verloock, Leen, et al. “Assessment of Radio Frequency Exposures in Schools, Homes, and Public Places in Belgium.” Health Physics 107.6 (2014): 503-13.

Bakker, J. F., et al. “Assessment of Induced SAR in children Exposed to Electromagnetic Plane Waves Between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz.” Physics in Medicine and Biology 55.11 (2010): 3115-30.

Gultekin, David H., and Lothar Moeller. “NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110.1 (2013): 58-63.

Environmental Exposures Combine with EMFs

Byun, Yoon-Hwan, et al. “Mobile phone use, blood lead levels, and attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children: a longitudinal study.” PLoS One 8.3 (2013): e59742.

Kostoff, Ronald N., and Clifford GY Lau. “Combined biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields and other agents in the published literature.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 80.7 (2013): 1331-49. Full text

Cognition

Papageorgiou, Charalabos C., et al. “Effects of wi-fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task.” Journal of Integrative Neuroscience 10.2 (2011): 189-202.

Mechanism

Barnes, Frank, and Ben Greenenbaum. “Some Effects of Weak Magnetic Fields on Biological Systems: RF fields can change radical concentrations and cancer cell growth rates.” IEEE Power Electronics Magazine 3.1 (2016): 60-8.

Pall, Martin L. “Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression.” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 43-51.

Leszczynski, Dariusz, et al. “Non‐thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer‐and blood‐brain barrier‐related effects.” Differentiation 70.2‐3 (2002): 120-9.

Hinrikus, Hiie, et al. “Mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect on nervous system.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 1-11 (2016).

Belyaev, Igor Y., et al. “Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long‐lasting inhibition of 53BP1/γ‐H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes.” Bioelectromagnetics 30.2 (2009): 129-41.

Markovà, Eva, Lars OG Malmgren, and Igor Y. Belyaev. “Microwaves from mobile phones inhibit 53BP1 focus formation in human stem cells more strongly than in differentiated cells: possible mechanistic link to cancer risk.” Environ Health Perspect 118.3 (2010): 394-9.

Havas, Magda. “When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer?” Environmental Pollution (2016).

Research Needs

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J., Olle Johansson, and George L. Carlo. “Real versus simulated mobile phone exposures in experimental studies.” BioMed Research International 2015 (2015).

Mosgoeller, Wilhelm, et al. “Environmental Health Trust Washington Research Agenda.” Report from the Washington, D.C. Expert Conference on Cell Phones and Health (2009).

Policy

Roda, Claudia, and Susan Perry. “Mobile phone infrastructure regulation in Europe: Scientific challenges and human rights protection.” Environmental Science & Policy 37 (2014): 204-14.

Redmayne, Mary. “International policy and advisory response regarding children’s exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 35.2 (2016): 176-85.

Hardell L, Carlberg M, Gee D. Late Lessons from Early Warnings, Part 2. European Environment Agency; Copenhagen: 2013. Mobile phone use and brain tumour risk: early warnings, early actions?

Hardell, Lennart, Michael Carlberg, and David Gee. “Mobile phone use and brain tumour risk: early warnings, early actions?” Late Lessons from Early Warnings, Part 2 509-29 (2012).

Starkey, Sarah J. “Inaccurate official assessment of radiofrequency safety by the Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation.” Reviews on Environmental Health 31.4 (2016): 493-503.

Alster, Norm. “Captured agency: How the Federal Communications Commission is dominated by the industries it presumably regulates.” Edmund J. Safra Center for Ethics, Harvard University (2015).

Kriebel, David, et al. “Environmental and Economic Strategies for Primary Prevention of Cancer in Early Life.” Pediatrics 138.1 (2016): S56-64.

ELF-EMF Studies of Note

Soffritti, Morando, et al. “Life-span exposure to sinusoidal-50 Hz magnetic field and acute low-dose γ radiation induce carcinogenic effects in Sprague-Dawley rats.” International Journal of Radiation Biology 92.4 (2016): 202-14.

Bees

Favre, Daniel. “Mobile phone-induced honeybee worker piping.” Apidologie 42.3 (2011): 270-9.

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MATERIALS FOR PATIENTS

Postcards & Brochures

Vienna Medical Association Cell Phone Tips Full Poster  Printable PDF https://goo.gl/SQ9idz

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AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS

AAP Webpage Cell Phone Radiation & Children’s Health: What Parents Need to Know

AAP responds to study showing link between cell phone radiation, tumors in rats, Press Release May 27, 2016

The American Academy of Pediatrics’ Letter to Federal Communications Commission

AAP Letter to Congress In Support of H.R. 6358, the Cell Phone Right to Know Act.

AAP Healthy Children Webpage Electromagnetic Fields: A Hazard to Your Health?

Textbook of Children’s Environmental Health, 2013 Edited by Philip J. Landrigan and Ruth A. Etzel, Chapter 41. Electromagnetic Fields by Kurt Straiff, Robert Baan, and Neela Guha

Oxford Press link here. See the Chapter on Google Books here.

SCHOOLS

Doctor Letters on School Wi-Fi

Collaborative For High Performance Schools Low-EMF Criteria

Scientific Lectures

2015 Dr. Davis Delivered the Dean’s Lecture at Melbourne

2012 National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences Lecture

2015 George Washington University Lecture

2016 Cell Phones, Wireless And Children’s Health Symposium Pediatric Academic Societies

2015 Expert Panel Discussion on Children and Wireless For Parents

2013 Commonwealth Club Expert Panel

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