Resources For Pediatricians on Cell Phones Wireless and Health
Children and pregnant women are most at risk from cell phone and wireless exposures. For children, cancer risks may be greater than that for adults because of greater penetration and absorption of cell phone radiation in the brains of children and because the developing nervous system of children is more susceptible to tissue damaging agents.
“The average RF energy deposition is twice as high in certain regions of children’s brains and up to 10 times higher in the bone marrow of children’s skulls, compared to energy deposition in adult brains and skulls.”
Doctors are in a unique position to directly educate their patients and their families. This page contains resources for pediatricians including research studies, educational resources, and links to learn more.
The Austrian Medical Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of EMF related Health Problems
The Austrian Medical Association has developed a guideline for differential diagnosis and treatment of health problems associated with outdoor and indoor electrosmog. Guidelines of the Austrian Medical Association for the diagnosis and treatment of EMF related health problems and illnesses (EMF syndrome)
The BabySafe Project: Doctors joining together to educate pregnant women on how to reduce their risk.
Cell Phone Safety Tips for Families:
- Use text messaging when possible, and use cell phones in speaker mode or with the use of hands-free kits.
- When talking on the cell phone, try holding it an inch or more away from your head.
- Make only short or essential calls on cell phones.
- Avoid carrying your phone against the body like in a pocket, sock, or bra. Cell phone manufacturers can’t guarantee that the amount of radiation you’re absorbing will be at a safe level.
- Do not talk on the phone or text while driving. This increases the risk of automobile crashes.
- Exercise caution when using a phone or texting while walking or performing other activities. “Distracted walking” injuries are also on the rise.
- If you plan to watch a movie on your device, download it first, then switch to airplane mode while you watch in order to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure.
- Keep an eye on your signal strength (i.e. how many bars you have). The weaker your cell signal, the harder your phone has to work and the more radiation it gives off. It’s better to wait until you have a stronger signal before using your device.
- Avoid making calls in cars, elevators, trains, and buses. The cell phone works harder to get a signal through metal, so the power level increases.
- Remember that cell phones are not toys or teething items.
California Medical Association
House of Delegates Resolution Wireless Standards Reevaluation 2014
CMA 2014 HOD Resolutions Adopted
Resolution 107- 14
Date Adopted Dec 7, 2014
Resolved 1 That CMA supports efforts to reevaluate microwave safety exposure levels associated with wireless communication devices, including consideration of adverse non-thermal biologic and health effects from non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation used in wireless communications; and be it further
Resolved 2 That CMA support efforts to implement new safety exposure limits for wireless devices to levels that do not cause human or environmental harm based on scientific research.
See below documentation introduced to the California Medical Association that lead to the passing of the above resolution.
CALIFORNIA MEDICAL ASSOCIATION HOUSE OF DELEGATES 2014
Wireless Communications Public Safety Standards Reevaluation
Introduced by Cindy Lee Russell, M.D. AND Ken Yew, M.D.
Whereas there are over 6 billion active cell phones worldwide and dependence of wireless communication networks is rapidly expanding including cell phones, cell towers, wireless routers for home use, medical devices and utility smart meters; and (1)
Whereas scientists are increasingly identifying EMF from wireless devices as a new form of environmental pollution with a growing body of peer reviewed scientific evidence finding significant adverse health and biologic effects on living organisms with exposure to low levels of non-ionizing microwaves currently approved and used in wireless communication, and
Whereas peer reviewed research has demonstrated adverse biological effects of wireless EMF including single and double stranded DNA breaks, creation of reactive oxygen species, immune dysfunction, cognitive processing effects, stress protein synthesis in the brain, altered brain development, sleep and memory disturbances, ADHD, abnormal behavior, sperm dysfunction, and brain tumors; and (2-55)
Whereas there is a long latency period of years to decades to study and identify adverse health effects such as brain cancer, neurodegenerative damage and autism; and
Whereas children’s brains are developmentally immature until adolescence, their skulls are thinner and the brain is considerably more vulnerable to toxin exposure , and (23,24)
Whereas the World Health Organization in 2011 designated wireless communications including cell phones to be a possible carcinogenic, and (63)
Whereas many scientists, researchers, public health officials and agencies conclude that wireless electromagnetic frequency (EMF) standards established by the Federal Communications Commission are outdated as they are based only on heat effects which damage to the organism and not biological effects of non –ionizing EMF microwave radiation which are scientifically demonstrated at levels hundreds of times less than current safety exposure limits and thus current standards are inadequate to protect public health; and (49-51)(57)
Whereas the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2013 has asked for reassessment of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields limits and policies that protect children’s health and well-being throughout their lifetimes and reflect current use patterns (58)
RESOLVED; that the CMA understands that existing public safety limits for microwave EMF devices are outdated and inadequate to protect public health thus endorses efforts of the Federal Communications Commission to reevaluate its safety standards to include consideration of adverse non thermal biologic and health effects from non ionizing electromagnetic radiation used in wireless communications; and be it further
RESOLVED; that the CMA supports efforts to implement microwave safety exposure limits to levels that do not cause human or environmental harm based on scientific research, and be it further
RESOLVED; that the CMA set up a task force to determine adequate precautionary recommendations for the use of cell phones and wireless devices for schools and children
References Wireless Communications Public Safety Standards Reevaluation
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- Electromagnetic Fields and DNA Damage. Phillips J. Pathophysiology 16 (2009) 79-88. http://www.scribd.com/doc/21750937/EMF-Cell-Phone-DNA-Damage
- Single- and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Lai H, Singh NP, Int J Radiat Biol 69(4):513-521, 1996. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/14573695_Single-_and_double-strand_DNA_breaks_in_rat_brain_cells_after_acute_exposure_to_radiofrequency_electromagnetic_radiation
- DNA Strand Breaks in Rat Brain Cells Exposed to Low level Microwave Radiation. Behari J. http://www.ursi.org/proceedings/procGA08/papers/K02bp2.pdf
- Long Term Exposure to Microwave Radiation Provokes Cancer Growth: Evidences from Radars and Mobile Communication Systems. Kyrylenko S. Experimental Oncology. March 2011. http://exp-oncology.com.ua/article/1845/long-term-exposure-to-microwave-radiation-provokes-cancer-growth-evidences-from-radars-and-mobile-communication-systems
- ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS: Conference, Hearing Call Up Cell Phone Use. Environ Health Perspect. Nov 2009; 117(11): A486. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2801166/
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- Association between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use. Moon S. Tumour Biol. Jan 2014; 35(1): 581–587. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3907669/
- Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumors: increased risk associated with use for > or =10 years. Hardell L, Carlsberg M. Occupational Environmental Medicine 2007, Sept; 64(9):626-32 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17409179
- Meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and the association with brain tumors. Hardell L International Journal of Oncology. May 2008 vol 32 Number 5. http://www.spandidos-publications.com/ijo/article.jsp?article_id=ijo_32_5_1097
- Cell phone Use and Acoustic Neuroma: The Need for Standardized Questionaires and access to Industry Data. Surgical Neurology. Volume 72, issue 3, pages 216-222 (Sept 2009) Yueh-Ying Han. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/24241041_Cell_phone_use_and_acoustic_neuroma_the_need_for_standardized_questionnaires_and_access_to_industry_data
- Exposure to Wireless Phone Emissions and Serum Bets-Trace Proteins. Hardell L. Soderqvist F. International Journal Molecular Medicine. 2010 August; 26(2):301-306. http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Exposure-to-wireless-phone-emissions/20596612.html
- Mobile Phone Use and the Risk for Malignant Brain Tumors: A Case Control Study on Deceased Cases and Controls. Hardell L, Carlsberg M, Neuroepidemiology: 2010 June 15;35(2): 109-114. http://www.avaate.org/IMG/pdf/Hardell_et_al_Neuroepidemiology_2010.pdf
- Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use. Hardell L. Int J Oncol. 2013 Dec;43(6):1833-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064953
- Mobile Phones, Cordless Phones and the Risk for Brain Tumors. Hardell L, Carlberg M. International Journal of Oncology, 2009 Jul;35(1):5-17 PMID: 19513546 http://www.spandidos-publications.com/ijo/article.jsp?article_id=ijo_35_1_5
- Oxidative damage in chemical teratogenesis. Wells PG. Mutat Res. 1997 Dec 12;396(1-2):65-78. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9434860
- Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen. Dr. Devra Davis. Pathophysiology. Volume 20, issue 2, Pages 123–129, April 2013
- Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models. Environ Health Perspect. Rice D. 108(suppl 3):511–533 (2000). http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.281.957
- Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models. Environ Health Perspect. Rice D. 108(suppl 3):511–533 (2000). http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.281.957
- Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells. Yao K . Mol Vis. 2008 May 19;14:964-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18509546
- Neuronal Death and Oxidative Stress in the Developing Brain. Chrysanthy Ikonomidou. ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING Volume 00, Number 0, 2011. https://neurology.wisc.edu/publications/2010%20Pubs/Ikonomidou-5.pdf
- Reactive oxygen species elevation and recovery in Drosophila bodies and ovaries following short-term and long-term exposure to DECT base EMF. Manta AK . Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Jun;33(2):118-31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23781995
- Protective effects of melatonin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester against retinal oxidative stress in long-term use of mobile phone: a comparative study. Ozguner F. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jan; 282(1-2):83-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16317515
- Autism-relevant social abnormalities in mice exposed perinatally to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970316
- Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources. Margaritis LH . Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Sep;33(3):165-89. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23915130
- Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation induces oxidative DNA base damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line. Liu C. Toxicol Lett. 2013 Mar 27;218(1):2-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23333639
- [Metabolic changes in cells under electromagnetic radiation of mobile communication systems]. Iakimenko. IL. Ukr Biokhim Zh. 2011 Mar-Apr;83(2):20-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21851043
- Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Leszczynski D. Differentiation. 2002 May;70(2-3):120-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12076339
- Effect of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation on oxidative stress in rat brain and serum. Bilgici B. Electromagn Biol Med. 2013 Mar;32(1):20-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23301880
- Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Júnior LC . Neurol Res. 2014 Sep;36(9):800-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620965
- Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR) on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in Wistar rats. Narayanan SN. Ups J Med Sci. 2010 May;115(2):91-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095879
- Analysis of emotionality and locomotion in radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation exposed rats. Narayanan SN. Neurol Sci. 2013 Jul;34(7):1117-24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22976773
- Evaluation of oxidant stress and antioxidant defense in discrete brain regions of rats exposed to 900 MHz radiation. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2014;115(5):260-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174055
- Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Aldid, T.Nature. Scientific Reports 2, Article number: 312. Feb 18, 2013. http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120315/srep00312/full/srep00312.html
- Cell phone radiation exposure on brain and associated biological systems. Kesari KK. Indian J Exp Biol. 2013 Mar;51(3):187-200. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23678539
- Disturbance of the immune system by electromagnetic fields-A potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment. Johansson O. Pathophysiology. 2009 Aug;16(2-3):157-77. Epub 2009 Apr 23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19398310
- Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. Divan HA . J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Jun;66(6):524-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21138897
- Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioral problems in children. Divan HA. Epidemiology. 2008 Jul;19(4):523-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18467962
- Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children. Guxens M. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 May;67(5):432-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23386674
- Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats. Mailankot M. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(6):561-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19578660
- Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature. La Vignera S. J Androl. 2012 May-Jun;33(3):350-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21799142
- Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Agarwal A. Fertil Steril. 2009 Oct;92(4):1318-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804757
- Bioinitiative 2012. http://www.bioinitiative.org/conclusions/
- Autism and EMF/RFR? Plausibility of a Pathophysiological Link-Part I. Pathophysiology Volume 20, Issue 3, 191-209, June 2013. Herbert M, Sage C (2013). http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680(13)00037-0/fulltext
- Autism and EMF/RFR? Plausibility of a Pathophysiological Link-Part II. Pathophysiology Volume 20, Issue 3 , 211-234, June 2013. Herbert M, Sage C (2013) http://apps.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=7520958031
- BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for Biologically-based Public Exposure Standards for Electromagnetic Radiation. December 31, 2012. BioInitiative Working Group, Cindy Sage and David O. Carpenter. http://www.bioinitiative.org/
- Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk from Mobile Phone Base Stations.
International Journal of Occupational Environmental Health: 16-3, Jul/Sep 2010, p263-267. Khurana V, Hardell L . http://www.brain-surgery.us/Khurana_et_al_IJOEH-Base_Station_RV.pdf
- Shallow Minds: How the Internet and Wi–Fi in Schools Can Affect Learning. Cindy Lee Russell, MD. Oct 2013 issue SCCMA Bulletin. http://issuu.com/18621/docs/bulletin_1013_web or http://www.sccma-mcms.org/Portals/19/assets/docs/Wi-Fi%20in%20Schools%20rev.pdf for full references
- Autism Rising Part 1. Dr. Cindy Russell. May/June SCCMA Bulletin 2014
http://www.sccma-mcms.org/NewsEvents/BulletinMemberMagazine.aspx or http://www.sccma-mcms.org/Portals/19/•Autism%20Rising%20Part%201.pdf
- Autism Rising Part 2. Dr. Cindy Russell. SCMA Bulletin 2014 http://www.sccma-mcms.org/NewsEvents/BulletinMemberMagazine.aspx or http://www.sccma-mcms.org/Portals/19/assets/docs/Autism%20Rising%20Part%202%20rev.pdf
- Scientific panel on electromagnetic field health risks: consensus points, recommendations, and rationales. Fragopoulou A. Rev Environ Health. 2010 Oct-Dec;25(4):307-17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21268443
- Letter American Academy of Pediatrics to FDA on “Reassessment of Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Limits and Policies” published in the Federal Register on June 4, 2013. http://apps.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=7520941318
- Wired vs Wireless in Classrooms. Letter to Los Angeles Unified School District. Feb 2013 from Martha Herbert, Assistant Professor Pediatric Neurology, Harvard Medical School. http://apps.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=7520940748
- The precautionary principle in environmental science. D Kriebel. Environ Health Perspect. Sep 2001; 109(9): 871–876. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240435/
- Environmental Working Group Cell Phone Report
- WiFi in schools proven dangerous. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KN7VetsCR2I&feature=related
- Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs193/en/
Cell Phones: Technology, Exposures, Health Effects by Environment and Human Health, Inc. lead authors from Yale School of Medicine.
A Sampling of Research on The Health Effects of Wireless Radiation
Cancer and Cancer Promotion
Wyde, Michael, et al. “Report of Partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure).” bioRxiv, 055699 (2016). (National Toxicology Program Video Presentation June 2016)
Lloyd Morgan, et al. “Are Third Generation Cellphones with Lower Radiated Power More Carcinogenic Than Second Generation Cellphones?–An Exploration of Recent Data.” Bioelectromagnetics Society and the European BioElectromagnetics (2016).
Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. “Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma–Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009.” Pathophysiology 22.1 (2015): 1-13.
Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. “Using the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones.” Reviews on Environmental Health 28.2-3 (2013): 97-106.
IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. “IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields.” IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans/World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer vol. 102 (2013).
Cardis, Elisabeth, et al. “Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68.9 (2011): 631-40.
Coureau, Gaëlle, et al. “Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine 71.7 (2014): 514-22.
Lerchl, Alexander, et al. “Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 459.4 (2015): 585-90.
Morgan, L. Lloyd, et al. “Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A)(Review).” International Journal of Oncology 46.5 (2015): 1865-71.
Carlberg, Michael, and Lennart Hardell. “Decreased survival of glioma patients with astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) associated with long-term use of mobile and cordless phones.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11.10 (2014): 10790-805.
Grell, Kathrine, et al. “The Intracranial Distribution of Gliomas in Relation to Exposure From Mobile Phones: Analyses From the INTERPHONE Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology 184.11 (2016): 818-28.
Carlberg, Michael, et al. “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.” BMC Cancer 16.426 (2016).
Parotid Gland Tumor
Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho, et al. “Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine 45 (2016): 682-6.
Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho, et al. “Does cell phone use increase the chances of parotid gland tumor development? A systematic review and meta‐analysis.” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine (2016).
Neurodevelopment and Neurological
Aldad, Tamir S., et al. “Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice.” Scientific Reports 2.312 (2012).
Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao, et al. “Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation.” International Journal of Toxicology 34.3 (2015): 284-90.
Tang, Jun, et al. “Exposure to 900MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats.” Brain Research 1601 (2015): 92-101.
Bas, O., et al. “Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats.” Toxicology and Industrial Health 25.6 (2009): 377-84.
Volkow, Nora D., et al. “Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism.” JAMA 305.8 (2011): 808-13.
Herbert, Martha R., and Cindy Sage. “Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link–Part I.” Pathophysiology 20.3: 191-209.
Herbert, Martha R., and Cindy Sage. “Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II.” Pathophysiology 20.3 (2013): 211-234.
Reviews on Biological Effects
Balmori, Alfonso. “Anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as an emerging threat to wildlife orientation.” Science of the Total Environment 518-519 (2015): 58-60.
Cucurachi, S., et al. “A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).” Environment International 51 (2013): 116-40.
Panagopoulos, Dimitris J., Olle Johansson, and George L. Carlo. “Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity.” Scientific Reports 5.12914 (2015).
Yakymenko, Igor, et al. “Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 35.2 (2016): 186-202.
Avendano, Conrado, et al. “Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation.” Fertility and Sterility 97.1 (2012): 39-45.
Adams, Jessica A., et al. “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Environment International 70 (2014): 106-12.
Atasoy, Halil I., et al. “Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices.” Journal of Pediatric Urology 9.2 (2013): 223-9.
Fernández-Rodríguez, Claudio Enrique, Alvaro Augusto Almeida De Salles, and Devra Lee Davis. “Dosimetric Simulations of Brain Absorption of Mobile Phone Radiation–The Relationship Between psSAR and Age.” IEEE Access 3 (2015): 2425-30.
Gandhi, Om P., et al. “Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 31.1 (2012): 34-51.
Ferreira, Juliana Borges, and Álvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles. “Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet user’s.” 7th Latin American Workshop On Communications (2015).
Findlay, R. P., and P. J. Dimbylow. “SAR in a child voxel phantom from exposure to wireless computer networks (Wi-Fi).” Physics in Medicine and Biology 55.15 (2010): N405-11.
Verloock, Leen, et al. “Assessment of Radio Frequency Exposures in Schools, Homes, and Public Places in Belgium.” Health Physics 107.6 (2014): 503-13.
Bakker, J. F., et al. “Assessment of Induced SAR in children Exposed to Electromagnetic Plane Waves Between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz.” Physics in Medicine and Biology 55.11 (2010): 3115-30.
Gultekin, David H., and Lothar Moeller. “NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110.1 (2013): 58-63.
Environmental Exposures Combine with EMFs
Byun, Yoon-Hwan, et al. “Mobile phone use, blood lead levels, and attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children: a longitudinal study.” PLoS One 8.3 (2013): e59742.
Kostoff, Ronald N., and Clifford GY Lau. “Combined biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields and other agents in the published literature.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 80.7 (2013): 1331-49. Full text
Papageorgiou, Charalabos C., et al. “Effects of wi-fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task.” Journal of Integrative Neuroscience 10.2 (2011): 189-202.
Barnes, Frank, and Ben Greenenbaum. “Some Effects of Weak Magnetic Fields on Biological Systems: RF fields can change radical concentrations and cancer cell growth rates.” IEEE Power Electronics Magazine 3.1 (2016): 60-8.
Pall, Martin L. “Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression.” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 75.B (2016): 43-51.
Leszczynski, Dariusz, et al. “Non‐thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer‐and blood‐brain barrier‐related effects.” Differentiation 70.2‐3 (2002): 120-9.
Hinrikus, Hiie, et al. “Mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect on nervous system.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 1-11 (2016).
Belyaev, Igor Y., et al. “Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long‐lasting inhibition of 53BP1/γ‐H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes.” Bioelectromagnetics 30.2 (2009): 129-41.
Markovà, Eva, Lars OG Malmgren, and Igor Y. Belyaev. “Microwaves from mobile phones inhibit 53BP1 focus formation in human stem cells more strongly than in differentiated cells: possible mechanistic link to cancer risk.” Environ Health Perspect 118.3 (2010): 394-9.
Havas, Magda. “When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer?” Environmental Pollution (2016).
Panagopoulos, Dimitris J., Olle Johansson, and George L. Carlo. “Real versus simulated mobile phone exposures in experimental studies.” BioMed Research International 2015 (2015).
Mosgoeller, Wilhelm, et al. “Environmental Health Trust Washington Research Agenda.” Report from the Washington, D.C. Expert Conference on Cell Phones and Health (2009).
Roda, Claudia, and Susan Perry. “Mobile phone infrastructure regulation in Europe: Scientific challenges and human rights protection.” Environmental Science & Policy 37 (2014): 204-14.
Redmayne, Mary. “International policy and advisory response regarding children’s exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 35.2 (2016): 176-85.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Gee D. Late Lessons from Early Warnings, Part 2. European Environment Agency; Copenhagen: 2013. Mobile phone use and brain tumour risk: early warnings, early actions?
Hardell, Lennart, Michael Carlberg, and David Gee. “Mobile phone use and brain tumour risk: early warnings, early actions?” Late Lessons from Early Warnings, Part 2 509-29 (2012).
Starkey, Sarah J. “Inaccurate official assessment of radiofrequency safety by the Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation.” Reviews on Environmental Health 31.4 (2016): 493-503.
Alster, Norm. “Captured agency: How the Federal Communications Commission is dominated by the industries it presumably regulates.” Edmund J. Safra Center for Ethics, Harvard University (2015).
Kriebel, David, et al. “Environmental and Economic Strategies for Primary Prevention of Cancer in Early Life.” Pediatrics 138.1 (2016): S56-64.
ELF-EMF Studies of Note
Soffritti, Morando, et al. “Life-span exposure to sinusoidal-50 Hz magnetic field and acute low-dose γ radiation induce carcinogenic effects in Sprague-Dawley rats.” International Journal of Radiation Biology 92.4 (2016): 202-14.
Favre, Daniel. “Mobile phone-induced honeybee worker piping.” Apidologie 42.3 (2011): 270-9.
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