“Clear Evidence of Cancer” Concludes U.S. National Toxicology Program Expert Panel on Cell Phone Radiation
Scientific panel advises there is evidence for an association between both heart and brain cancers and cell phone radiation in large-scale animal study.
Expanded Press Release (with radio/TV/print news at bottom of page)
(Triangle Park, NC) March 28, 2018
Scientific panel advises there is evidence for an association between both heart and brain cancers and cell phone radiation in large-scale animal study.
(Triangle Park, NC) Scientists concluded there is “clear evidence” linking cell phone radiation to the development of cancers in rats. The U.S. government invited an expert panel to make a majority-rules declaration in response to the $25 million U.S. government National Toxicology Program (NTP) study of cell phone radiation in animals. After a three-day review of the study data, they voted to strengthen the conclusions that cell phone radiation caused health effects in the cell phone radiation exposed rats and mice.
Scientific American and The Nation both ran stories on the issue along with The News and Observer entitling their piece, “Can your cellphone cause cancer? Scientists find definitive link in study of rats.” Ira Flatow of Science Friday also featured the scientific conference findings in a radio interview “Is There A Cell Phone Link To Cancer? A Definite Maybe” on March 30, 2018.
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Toxicology Program released a statement about the conclusions of the panel for each endpoint, found here. NIEHS also wrote an article on the March conclusions of “clear evidence” in an article entitled, “NTP cell phone studies — experts recommend elevated conclusions.” See the presentation by NIEHS on DNA damage found in rats and mice.
The peer review panel voted that the malignant schwannoma tumors found in the heart of male rats be scientifically categorized as “clear evidence of carcinogenicity” and that the malignant gliomas found in the brain of male rats be categorized as “some evidence of carcinogenicity.” In addition, they voted that the increased tumors of the adrenal medulla in male rats exposed to the GSM type of cell phone radiation be categorized as “some evidence of carcinogenicity,” adding a new type of tumor thought to be caused by the exposure. The expert panel advised strengthening the conclusions regarding seven different health effects. The panel called attention to statistically significant increases in an unusual pattern of cardiomyopathy, or damage to heart tissue, in exposed male and female rats. The panel highlighted that in Italy a recent animal study on radiofrequency radiation at much lower radiation levels than the NTP study found the same types of rare malignancies.
In addition to the heart and brain cancers, statistically significant increased numbers of tumors were found in other organs at one or more of the exposure levels studied, including the prostate gland, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, liver, and pancreas. See the bottom of this release for a full list of cancer endpoints.
“What should happen now is the FDA should be immediately working on developing a quantitative risk assessment from this data and in the meantime the FDA, FCC, and other agencies should promote precautionary measures for the population—especially for children,” said Ronald Melnick PhD, who led the design of the NTP study in his 28-year career as a scientist at the National Toxicology Program. Melnick is currently senior advisor to Environmental Health Trust (EHT).
“Enough is enough, how many more deaths would be needed before serious action is taken? Evidence just continues to accumulate. On March 28, 2018, the external peer reviewers of the National Toxicology Program voted to increase the level of evidence for the causal role of radiofrequency radiation for several tumors and other negative health effects. It’s time for action,” commented Annie Sasco MD, DrPH, former Chief of Research Unit of Epidemiology for Cancer Prevention at the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization and medical advisor to EHT.
“The NTP study found far more than evidence of cancer. Animals exposed in their lifetimes to the same amount of radiation that a human can receive in theirs gave birth to smaller babies with more defects in their hearts. What also makes these results especially compelling is the fact that all well-designed studies of people with 10 or more years of exposures to cell phones find higher risks for comparable tumors—gliomas and acoustic neuromas. Yet exposures continue to increase every day in schools and homes throughout this nation as children are handed two-way microwave radiating devices to use next to their young developing bodies,” stated Devra Davis PhD, MPH, Visiting Professor of Medicine at Hebrew University and President of Environmental Health Trust, who added, “the Ramazzini Study published this week in Environmental Research found statistically significant increases of the same rare cancers as found in the National Toxicology Program study, but at radiation levels significantly lower than those of the NTP. Combined, these two studies strengthen the case that this radiation is a carcinogen. Cautionary action is urgently needed to reduce exposures for children and the rest of us. The chairman of our Business Advisory Group Frank Clegg, former President of Microsoft Canada, has advised: ‘I come from a smart industry. Tell us what we need to do and we will get it done.’”
This animal evidence, together with the extensive human evidence showing increased risk of gliomas of the brain and vestibular schwannomas in humans exposed to prolonged radiofrequency radiation, largely from cell phones, especially if the exposure begins at a young age, coupled with a rising incidence of brain cancers in young people in the U.S., conclusively confirms that radiofrequency radiation is a Category 1 human carcinogen,” explains Anthony Miller MD, Professor Emeritus, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, medical advisor to EHT, who has served as an advisor to the World Health Organization.
“The peer reviewers reviewed the tumor data in a transparent scientific process. This landmark U.S. government study, in addition to the recently released Italian Ramazzini study, provides the scientific evidence governments need to take swift action to protect the public,” said Theodora Scarato, Executive Director of EHT who added, “The rollout of 5G small cells must be halted. Schools need to install wired internet networks. Communities should have maintained landlines. Solutions exist such as Ethernet and fiber optic networks. Public Health Departments need to initiate public awareness campaigns to educate the public on how to reduce exposure. People need to understand just how easy it is to use wired connections, instead of wireless radiation, especially at home. Employers need to prioritize this issue and make changes in the workplace to limit and minimize workplace exposures. We have a responsibility to take action on this issue now.”
Dr. Marc Arazi stated that he traveled from France 4000 miles to tell the National Toxicology Program scientists that the way cell phones are radiation tested do not reflect real human exposure and that the exposure levels they used are comparable and in fact lower than radiation exposures people can be experiencing from cell phone use. “In terms of actual use, almost all of our mobile phones expose us to levels 2 to 10 times higher than the limits allowed by the regulations to protect our health. I say this based on government radiation tests conducted between 2012 and 2016 by the French National Frequencies Agency on nearly 400 of the best-selling mobile phones in Europe. This issue is at the origin of the international health and industrial scandal called Phonegate. The radiation measurements found in the French tests far exceed the exposure levels used in the NTP study. I presented these revelations publicly during the Peer Review session in front of the authors of the study and the scientists of the pane. I was pleased to hear Dr. John Bucher of the NTP explain to reporters how to reduce radiation exposure by keeping the phone at a distance from the body.
“This is an important step forward in our understanding. But the NTP study, in my judgement substantially underestimates the risk. That is because they used a reverberation exposure chamber which lowers the polarization of the electromagnetic field and can also produce substantial amounts of destructive interference. Both of these changes decrease biological effects,” stated Martin Pall, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State University.
“RFR from wireless devices appears to act as a common toxic exposure similar to other chemical toxins and metals. In this increasingly wireless environment, more people will be developing chronic diseases. It will take decades (if it is even possible) to sort out the additive contribution of harm from wireless technology. Your research indicates that guidelines need to be based on biological cellular effects and not thermal effects. Precaution is warranted. Reduction of exposure to RFR is a preventative public health measure,” stated Cindy Russell, MD of Physicians For Safe Technology and author of “Wi-Fi in Schools” and “A 5G Wireless Future: Will It Give Us a Smart Nation or Contribute to An Unhealthy One?”.
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences webcast of the three-day review will be online within days. The NIEHS meeting webpage with powerpoint slide presentations is here.
RECOMMENDATIONS OF CLASSIFICATION OF CANCERS AND PRE CANCERS in NTP STUDY
On March 26-28, 2018 the NTP expert peer review panel recommended the following actions related to the strength of confidence in the association between the finding and the exposure- NTP’s scale of clear evidence, some evidence, equivocal evidence, and no evidence. For seven cancer endpoints, the peer review recommendations were to increase the level of evidence (noted with a *) They recommended the following strength of evidence classifications after a review of the study findings.
Clear Evidence of Carcinogenic Activity
- *Increases in malignant schwannoma in the heart in male rats (GSM and CDMA) – clear evidence of carcinogenic activity
Some Evidence of Carcinogenic Activity: The strength of the response is less than that required for clear evidence but is enough to consider it an association.
- * malignant glioma in the brain in male rats (GSM and CDMA) – some evidence of carcinogenic activity
- *Increases in pheochromocytoma (benign, malignant, or complex combined) in the adrenal medulla male rats (GSM) – some evidence of carcinogenic activity
Equivocal Evidence of Carcinogenic Activity: A marginal increase of neoplasms that may be related to the exposure.
- Increases in adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in the prostate gland in male rats (GSM and CDMA) – equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity
- Increases in benign or malignant granular cell tumors in the brain in male rats (GSM) equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity
- Increases in adenoma in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland in male rats exposed to both GSM and CDMA – equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity
- Increases in adenoma in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland in male rats CDMA – equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity
- Increases in pancreatic islet cell adenoma or carcinoma in male rats (GSM) -equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity
- * Increases in malignant schwannomas in the heart in female rats GSM and CDMA –equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity
- Increases in malignant glioma in the brain in female CDMA- equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity
- Increases in pheochromocytoma (benign, malignant, or complex combined) in the adrenal medulla in female rats (CDMA) – equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity
- DNA damage was significantly increased in the frontal cortex of male mice (both modulations GSM and CDMA), peripheral leukocytes of female mice (CDMA only), and hippocampus of male rats (CDMA only). “These results suggest that exposure to RFR has the potential to induce measurable DNA damage under certain exposure conditions,” stated the NTP scientists in this PDF of the Genotoxicity findings.
- Cardiomyopathy of the right ventricle in both male and female exposed animals in both CDMA and GSM.
- Increases in nonneoplastic lesions in the heart, brain, and prostate gland in male rats (GSM and CDMA).
- Increases in nonneoplastic lesions in the heart, thyroid gland, and adrenal gland in female rats occurred with exposures to GSM.
- Increases in nonneoplastic lesions of the brain in females exposed to CDMA.
* Peer reviewers increased the level of strength of evidence from the draft report.
Click here to download and share an infographic about cell phone radiation and cancer.
Environmental Health Trust has compiled key documents and resources so you get the information you need about the National Toxicology Program Study findings.
National Toxicology Program Cell Phone Radiation Study Documents
“NTP cell phone studies — experts recommend elevated conclusions “ NIEHS published article on the “clear evidence” of cancer conclusions of the peer review.
“Statement of the Conclusions of the NIEHS Peer Review” The NIEHS NTP issued this two page document that lists the final conclusions of the peer review panel for each cancer endpoint.
Full report/presentation by NIEHS on DNA damage found in rats and mice. Note: This information was presented in 2017 at a conference and found via a public information request.
The Peer Review panel of experts for the NTP technical Report See it here
National Institute of Health Press Materials
2/1/2018 NIEHS Press Release “High Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Linked to Tumor Activity in Male Rats”
New Studies Link Cell Phone Radiation with Cancer, Scientific American March 29, 2018
“Can your cellphone cause cancer? Scientists find definitive link in study of rats” The News and Observer March 28, 2018
“Researchers find the cellphone-cancer risk is higher than originally thought” The Blaze March 30, 2018
The Nation: How Big Wireless Made Us Think That Cell Phones Are Safe: A Special Investigation: The disinformation campaign—and massive radiation increase—behind the 5G rollout. By Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie, The Nation, March 29, 2018
New Study Links Cancer to Cell Phone Use, NBC DFW March 28, 2018
Advocates for Tougher RFR Standards Welcome Expert Views, Paul Kirby, Senior Editor, TRDaily
“We now have the first clear evidence cell phone radiation can cause cancer in rats” Quartz, March 30, 2018
“Is There A Cell Phone Link To Cancer? A Definite Maybe” Science Friday Radio 7:56 Minute Radio, March 30, 2018
Cell Phone Radiation Linked to Cancer in New Studies, Interesting Engineering, April 1, 2018
Major Canadian Study Finds Cell Phone Use
Increases Risk For Brain Cancer
American Journal of Epidemiology publishes new analysis which finds a doubling of brain cancer in persons using cell phones over 558 hours
A newly published report in the American Journal of Epidemiology just released this week, confirms that Canadians who have used cellphones for 558 hours or more have more than a doubled risk of brain cancer. These important findings strengthen the association between glioma, an aggressive brain cancer, and cell phone use.
The original 13-nation Interphone study for the International Agency for the Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization reported reported a 40% increase in brain cancer for those using phones for 1640 lifetime hours. This new study found that Canadians had more than a doubled glioma risk when they were analyzed apart from the 12 other countries.
“This study adds more evidence linking cell phone use with brain cancer. We believe the criteria has been met for radio frequency radiation to be classified as a probable human carcinogen. Governments need to take immediate action to inform the public and enact protective policies, ” stated Dr. Anthony Miller, a senior advisor to the World Health Organization and scientific advisor the the Environmental Health Trust. Miller recently presented a review of the current peer reviewed science linking phone radiation to cancer at an international conference on Wireless and Health at the Israel Institute for Advanced Studies organized in cooperation with the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and Environmental Health Trust.
How long will it take a teenager to amass 558 hours of cell phone use?
At the same time, 5G is rolling out. Not only will 5G utilize cell phone frequencies but it will also incorporate new millimeter waves which are already used at a greater power as military weapons. How can this 5 G rollout continue in light of the scientific evidence we have before us?Dr. Devra Davis, President and founder of Environmental Health Trust
Momoli F, Siemiatycki J, McBride ML, Parent MÉ, Richardson L, Bedard D, Platt R, Vrijheid M, Cardis E, Krewski D. Probabilistic multiple-bias modelling applied to the Canadian data from the INTERPHONE study of mobile phone use and risk of glioma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. Am J Epidemiol. 2017 May 23. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx157. [Epub ahead of print]
We undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the thirteen-country INTERPHONE case-control study (2001-2004), which evaluated the association between mobile phone use and risk of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. The main publication of the multinational INTERPHONE study concluded that “biases and errors prevent a causal interpretation”. We applied a probabilistic multiple-bias model to address possible biases simultaneously, using validation data from billing records and non-participant questionnaires as information on recall error and selective participation. Our modelling sought to adjust for these sources of uncertainty and to facilitate interpretation. For glioma, the odds ratio comparing highest quartile of use (over 558 lifetime hours) to non-regular users was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.4). The odds ratio was 2.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 4.1) when adjusted for selection and recall biases. There was little evidence of an increase in the risk of meningioma, acoustic neuroma, or parotid gland tumors in relation to mobile phone use. Adjustments for selection and recall biases did not materially affect interpretation in our Canadian results.
Lecture BY Dr. Anthony Miller PDF of Dr. Anthony Miller January 25, 2017 IIAS Presentation
Environmental Health Trust’s database of worldwide policies on cell phone radiation and health.
ADDITIONAL SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
Carlberg, Michael and Lennart Hardell. “Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation.” BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, 2017.
When considered vis a vis deductive public health principles, the combined evidence from epidemiology and laboratory studies indicate that meningioma and glioma in the temporal lobe can be considered to be caused by cumulative RF radiation exposure. Experimental findings that RF increases production of reactive oxygen species suggest a potential mechanism.
Prasad, M., et al. “Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes.” Neurological Sciences, 2017.
Studies with higher quality are more likely to find higher risk of brain tumour, while lower quality studies tend to indicate lower risk/protection
Grell, Kathrine, et al. “The Intracranial Distribution of Gliomas in Relation to Exposure From Mobile Phones: Analyses From the INTERPHONE Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 184, no. 11 2016, pp. 818-28.
Similar to earlier results, we found a statistically significant association between the intracranial distribution of gliomas and the self-reported location of the phone. When we accounted for the preferred side of the head not being exclusively used for all mobile phone calls, the results were similar.
Hardell, Lennart and Michael Carlberg. “Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma–Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009.” Pathophysiology, vol. 22, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1-13.
Mobile phone and cordless phone use increased the risk of glioma, with highest risk in the >15–20 years latency group Highest ORs overall were found for ipsilateral mobile or cordless phone use, while the highest risk was found for glioma in the temporal lobe. First use of mobile or cordless phone before the age of 20 gave higher OR for glioma than in later age groups.
Carlberg, Michael and Lennart Hardell. “Decreased survival of glioma patients with astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) associated with long-term use of mobile and cordless phones.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 11, no. 10, 2014, pp. 10790-805.
Elevated HR (decreased survival) for the most malignant glioma type, astrocytoma grade IV, was found for long-term use of mobile and cordless phones. Highest HR was found for cases with first use before the age of 20 years.
Coureau, Gaëlle, et al. “Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 71, no. 7, 2014, pp. 514-22.
No association with brain tumours was observed when comparing regular mobile phone users with non-users, however, the positive association was statistically significant in the heaviest users when considering life-long cumulative duration and number of calls for gliomas. Risks were higher for gliomas, temporal tumours, occupational and urban mobile phone use.
Absorbed Exposures to Anatomical Regions of the Brain and Increased Brain Cancer Incidence Rates
Zada, Gabriel, et al. “Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992–2006.” World neurosurgery, vol. 77, no. 3, 2012, pp. 518-24.
Data from 3 major cancer registries demonstrate increased incidences of glioblastoma multiforme in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and cerebellum, despite decreased incidences in other brain regions. Although this may represent an effect of diagnostic bias, the incidence of both large and small tumors increased in these regions.
Cardis, Elisabeth, et al. “Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 68, no. 9, 2011, pp. 631-40.
Authors found suggestions of an increased risk of glioma in long-term mobile phone users with high RF exposure and of similar, but apparently much smaller, increases in meningioma risk.
Schwann Cell Cancers
Moon et al. “Association between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use.” Tumour Biology, vol. 35, no. 1, 2014, pp. 581-7 .
Acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwannomas) occur more frequently on used ear of mobile phones and tumor volume showed a strong correlation with amount of mobile phone use.
Benson, V.S., et al. “Mobile phone use and risk of brain neoplasms and other cancers: prospective study.” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 42, no. 3, 2013, pp. 792-802.
Acoustic neuromas were 2 1/2 times more likely in long term users compared to never users (10+ years: RR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.07-5.64, P = 0.03), with the risk increasing with duration of use (trend among users, P = 0.03).
Hardell, et al. “Pooled analysis of case-control studies on acoustic neuroma diagnosed 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 and use of mobile and cordless phones.” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 43, no. 4, 2013, pp. 1036-44.
This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.
Hardell, L., M. Carlberg and Mild K. Hansson. “Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma.” Pathophysiology, vol. 20, no. 2, 2012, pp. 85-110.
Regarding acoustic neuroma, ipsilateral mobile phone use in the latency group ≥10 years gave OR=1.81, 95% CI=0.73-4.45. For ipsilateral cumulative use ≥1640 h OR=2.55, 95% CI=1.50-4.40 was obtained. Also use of cordless phones increased the risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma in the Hardell group studies.
Interphone Study Group. “Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study.” Cancer Epidemiology, vol. 35, no. 5, 2011, pp. 453-64.
In general, ORs were not greater in subjects who reported usual phone use on the same side of the head as their tumour than in those who reported it on the opposite side, but it was greater in those in the 10th decile of cumulative hours of use.
Hardell et al. “Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours.” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 35, no. 1, 2009, pp. 5-17.
For acoustic neuroma, the highest OR was found for ipsilateral use and >10 year latency, for mobile phone OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.2 and cordless phone OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.6-8.8.
Schoemaker et al. “Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone case-control study in five North European countries.” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 93, no. 7, 2005, pp. 842-8.
Risk of a tumour on the same side of the head as reported phone use was raised for use for 10 years or longer (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). The study suggests that there is no substantial risk of acoustic neuroma in the first decade after starting mobile phone use. However, an increase in risk after longer term use or after a longer lag period could not be ruled out.
Lonn et al. “Mobile phone use and the risk of acoustic neuroma.” Epidemiology, vol.15, no. 6, 2004, pp. 653-9
The overall odds ratio for acoustic neuroma associated with regular mobile phone use was 1.0 (95% confidence interval = 0.6-1.5). Ten years after the start of mobile phone use the estimates relative risk increased to 1.9 (0.9-4.1); when restricting to tumors on the same side of the head as the phone was normally used, the relative risk was 3.9 (1.6-9.5).
Lim et al. “Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States, 1974-2013.” JAMA, vol. 317, no. 13, 2017, pp. 1338-48.
Among patients in the United States diagnosed with thyroid cancer from 1974-2013, the overall incidence of thyroid cancer increased 3% annually, with increases in the incidence rate and thyroid cancer mortality rate for advanced-stage papillary thyroid cancer. These findings are consistent with a true increase in the occurrence of thyroid cancer in the United States.
Carlberg, Michael, et al. “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.” BMC Cancer, vol. 16, no. 426, 2016.
The main finding of this register based study was an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Sweden during the whole study period 1970–2013 in both women and men, although not statistically significant in men. In both genders the incidence increased during the more recent study period, from 2001 in women and from 2005 in men.
Parotid Gland Cancers
Sadetzki, Siegal, et al. “Cellular Phone Use and Risk of Benign and Malignant Parotid Gland Tumors–A Nationwide Case-Control Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 167, no. 4, 2007, pp. 457-67.
Our results suggest a relation between long-term and heavy cellular phone use and parotid gland tumors. This association was seen in analyses restricted to regular users, analyses of laterality of phone use, and analyses of area of main use.
Cancer and Cancer Promotion
Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho, et al. “Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, vol. 45, no. 9, 2016, pp. 682-6.
Cell phone exposure was associated with an increased level of IL-1β (a pro-inflammatory cytokine) and decreased IL-10 level (anti-inflammatory cytokine) in the exposed parotid gland saliva .
Sadetzki, Siegal, et al. “The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk.” Frontiers in Public Health, vol. 2, no. 124, 2014, pp. 1-10.
MOBI-Kids, a multinational case–control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them.
IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. “IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields.” IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans/World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer vol. 102, 2013.