Research on Wireless Health Effects
Cell phones and wireless expose people to a type of microwave radiation also known as radiofrequency radiation or RF-EMF. Peer reviewed research has demonstrated a myriad of adverse biological effects from wireless radiation including reproductive dysfunction, single- and double-stranded DNA breaks, creation of reactive oxygen species, immune dysfunction, stress protein synthesis in the brain, altered brain development, sleep and memory disturbances, and increased brain tumors.
These effects have occurred at wireless radiation exposure levels hundreds of times lower than presently legal international limits. These effects have occurred after exposure to devices that are government approved and legally sold to the public.
Scientific data on the biological effects of radiofrequency indicate the immediate need for a precautionary approach to protect the public. Conclusive proof is not necessary. The research has accumulated enough to provide strong evidence that low levels are not safe.
Increased Cancer Risk
The research evidence indicates that long term use of cell phones and wireless increase our cancer risk. All independent longitudinal research has consistently shown that long-term “heavy” cellphone users have an increased risk of brain cancer. (“Heavy” was defined as 30 minutes per day.) Such research lead to the World Health Organization’s International Agency for the Research on Cancer to classify this radiation as a Class 2 B Possible Human Carcinogen in 2011. Since 2011, the evidence has increased.
—Dr. Ronald B. Herberman
Dr. Hardell’s research showed that adults who started using cell or cordless phones as teenagers had an 8-fold higher risk of brain cancer on the side of their head where they held the phone. A French study also found increased brain cancer in long term cell phone users. To date, the only published study of children’s risk of brain cancer from cell phone use found more than a 2-fold risk after >2.8 years of use (from billing records), combined with a statistically significant trend of increasing risk with increasing years of use.
In 2015 Lerchl et al published an important replication study which confirms that wireless acts as a tumor promoter. In this important study, lymphomas and tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher. The wireless exposure was at low to moderate exposure levels well below exposure limits for the users of mobile phones.This research is significant in that it used a larger group of mice and replicated tumor-promoting effects shown in a 2010 study.
Bortkiewicz, A., E. Gadzicka and W. Szymczak.“Mobile phone use and risk for intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors – A meta-analysis.”International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, vol. 30, no. 1, 2017, pp. 27-43.
- Researchers conducted a systematic review of multiple electronic databases for relevant publications. Twenty four studies (26 846 cases, 50 013 controls) on individual exposure were included into the meta-analysis.
- A significantly higher risk of an intracranial tumor (all types) was noted for the period of mobile phone use over 10 years (odds ratio (OR) = 1.324, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.028-1.704), and for the ipsilateral location (OR = 1.249, 95% CI: 1.022-1.526).
- The results support the hypothesis that long-term use of mobile phone increases risk of intracranial tumors, especially in the case of ipsilateral exposure.
Prasad, Manya, et al. “Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes.” Neurological Sciences, 2017, pp. 1-14.
- This paper aims to investigate whether methodological quality of studies and source of funding can explain the variation in results. Twenty-two case control studies were included for systematic review
- For mobile phone use of 10 years or longer (or >1640 h), the overall result of the meta-analysis showed a significant 1.33 times increase in risk. The summary estimate of government funded as well as phone industry funded studies showed no significant increase, while mixed funded studies did not show any increase in risk of brain tumour. The association was significantly linked with methodological study quality. Evidence linking mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours especially in long-term users (≥10 years) was found. Studies with higher quality showed a trend towards high risk of brain tumour, while lower quality showed a trend towards lower risk/protection.
Carlberg, Micheal and Lennart Hardell. “Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation.” BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, 2017.
- Bradford Hill’s viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation were used on glioma risk and use of mobile or cordless phones. All nine viewpoints were evaluated based on epidemiology and laboratory studies.
- Increased risk for glioma was in the temporal lobe. Using meningioma cases as comparison group still increased the risk. Highest risk was in the 20+ years’ latency group, OR = 2.01, 95% CI =1.41–2.88, for wireless phones. Cumulative use of wireless phones increased the risk.
- Animal studies showed an increased incidence of glioma and malignant schwannoma in rats exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. There is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from RF radiation.
- Coherence: There is a change in the natural history of glioma and increasing incidence.
- Conclusion. RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen causing glioma.
Havas, Magda. “When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer?” Environmental Pollution, vol. 221, 2017, pp. 501-5.
Carlberg, Michael, et al. “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.” BMC Cancer, vol. 16, no. 426, 2016.
- “The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries, especially the papillary type that is the most radiosensitive type.” Researchers used the Swedish Cancer Register to study the incidence of thyroid cancer during 1970–2013 using joinpoint regression analysis.
- Results showed an increased incidence of thyroid cancer in Sweden from 1970-2013, with the increase being statistically significant in women but not men. Other nordic countries also showed significantly statistic thyroid cancer increases.
- “We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e.g. medical computed tomography (CT) scans, and to RF-EMF (non-ionizing radiation) should be further studied.”
Grell, Kathrine, et al. “The Intracranial Distribution of Gliomas in Relation to Exposure From Mobile Phones: Analyses From the INTERPHONE Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology 184.11 (2016): 818-28.
- Researchers used the INTERPHONE study data to examine the relationship between the self-reported location of cell phone during use and brain tumor position in 792 regular cell phone users diagnosed with a glioma between 2000 and 2004.
- Results indicated a statistically significant association between intracranial distribution of gliomas and location of phone.
- “Taken together, our results suggest that ever using a mobile phone regularly is associated with glioma localization in the sense that more gliomas occurred closer to the ear on the side of the head where the mobile phone was reported to have been used the most.”
Wyde, Michael, et al. “Report of Partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure).” bioRxiv, 055699, 2016. (National Toxicology Program Video Presentation that includes genotoxicity results June 2016)
- This 25 million dollar study is the most complex study completed by the NTP and the world’s largest rodent study on radiofrequency radiation exposure to date. Exposures to rats began in-utero (meaning while the mother rats are pregnant). The exposures to mice start during adolescence and continued through young adulthood (subchronic) or for 2 years (chronic).
- Increased incidence of gliomas – a rare, aggressive, and highly malignant brain cancer – as well as schwannomas (a rare tumor of the nerve sheath) of the heart were found in both sexes but reached statistical significance only in males.
- Significantly more rare, pre-cancerous changes in the glial cells of the brain in both sexes, while not a single one of the unexposed control animals developed these same abnormal brain cells. Male rats exposed to all levels of CDMA developed exceptional numbers of damaged, pre-cancerous brain cells (glial hyperplasia). Both male and female rats, exposed to all levels of microwave radiation, developed increased incidence of rare malignant tumors of Schwann cells (nerve sheaths) of the heart. Females exposed to all levels of CDMA also developed precancerous hyperplastic Schwann cells, while none of the unexposed controls developed this rare abnormality.
- Body weights at birth and throughout lactation in rat pups exposed in utero tended to be lower than controls
- Comet assay summaries revealed statistically significant evidence of DNA damage from nonthermal exposure in mice and rats within the frontal cortex (male & female rats, male male), hippocampus (male rats), liver (male rats, female mice), and blood (male rats, female mice).
- The increased types of tumors found in NTP’s research rats parallel the types of increased tumors found in human long term users of cell phones.
- Scientists state this research should result in official recommendations to the public by federal agencies to reduce exposure.
Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho, et al. “Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, vol. 45 , 2016, pp. 682-6.
- “The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cell phone use alters cytokine expression in the saliva produced by the parotid glands.”
- Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays were used to determine the cytokine expression profiles of saliva produced by the parotid gland within subjects exposed to cell phone radiation in comparison to those not exposed.
- Significantly altered levels of interleukin 10 and 1-Beta were found between exposed and unexposed individuals in a manner that is consistent with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment within the parotid gland.
Barnes, Frank, and Ben Greenebaum. “Some Effects of Weak Magnetic Fields on Biological Systems: RF fields can change radical concentrations and cancer cell growth rates.” IEEE Power Electronics Magazine, vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, pp. 60-8.
- Concerns have been raised about the possible biological effects of nonionizing radiation and low-intensity fields, including low frequency fields from the electric power generating, transmission, and distribution system and the devices it energizes, as well as intermediate, radio-frequency (RF), and higher-frequency radiation from devices such as cell phones, broadcast antennas, Wi-Fi, security monitors, and so forth. These are concerns about the direct effects of radiation on humans or other organisms. They are distinct from the electromagnetic compatibility issues that concern interference by the fields from one device with the function of another, though human health can be indirectly affected by electromagnetic interference with the function of medical devices, including hospital equipment or pacemakers.
Lerchl, et al. “Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2015.
- A replication study. “Numbers of tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher than in sham-exposed controls. In addition, lymphomas were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure. A clear dose–response effect is absent. We hypothesize that these tumor-promoting effects may be caused by metabolic changes due to exposure. Since many of the tumor-promoting effects in our study were seen at low to moderate exposure levels (0.04 and 0.4 W/kg SAR), thus well below exposure limits for the users of mobile phones, further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our findings may help to understand the repeatedly reported increased incidences of brain tumors in heavy users of mobile phones.”
Morgan, L.L., et al. “Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (review).” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 46, no. 5, 2015, pp. 1865-71.
- The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use.
- We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A ̔probable̓ human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). Additional data should be gathered on exposures to mobile and cordless phones, other WTDs, mobile phone base stations and Wi‑Fi routers to evaluate their impact on public health.
- We advise that the as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) principle be adopted for uses of this technology, while a major cross‑disciplinary effort is generated to train researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of potential health impacts of RF‑EMF.
Coureau, G., et al. “ Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 71, no. 7, 2014, pp. 514-22.
- “CERENAT is a multicenter case-control study carried out in four areas in France in 2004–2006. No association with brain tumours was observed when comparing regular mobile phone users with non-users. However, the positive association was statistically significant in the heaviest users when considering life-long cumulative duration for meningiomas and number of calls for gliomas Risks were higher for gliomas, temporal tumours, occupational and urban mobile phone use.
- These additional data support previous findings concerning a possible association between heavy mobile phone use and brain tumours.”
Davis, D.L., et al. “Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen.” Pathophysiology, vol. 20, no. 2, 2013, pp. 123-9.
- “Given that treatment for a single case of brain cancer can cost between $100,000 for radiation therapy alone and up to $1 million depending on drug costs, resources to address this illness are already in short supply and not universally available in either developing or developed countries. Significant additional shortages in oncology services are expected at the current growth of cancer. No other environmental carcinogen has produced evidence of an increased risk in just one decade…If the increased brain cancer risk found in young users in these recent studies does apply at the global level, the gap between supply and demand for oncology services will continue to widen. Many nations, phone manufacturers, and expert groups, advise prevention in light of these concerns by taking the simple precaution of “distance” to minimize exposures to the brain and body. We note than brain cancer is the proverbial “tip of the iceberg”; the rest of the body is also showing effects other than cancers.”
Hardell, M. and L. Carlberg. “Cell and cordless phone risk for glioma – Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997-2003 and 2007-2009.” Pathophysiology, vol. 22, no. 1, 2014, pp. 1-13.
- “Conclusion. We previously analysed the evidence on glioma associated with the use of wireless phones using the Hill criteria . We concluded that glioma and also acoustic neuroma are caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones, and thus regarded as carcinogenic, under Group 1 according to the IARC classification, indicating that current guidelines for exposure should be urgently revised. This pooled analysis gives further support to that conclusion regarding glioma.”
Carlberg, M. and L. Hardell. “Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 11, no. 10, 2014, pp. 10790-805.
- Survival was analyzed for 1678 glioma patients in Hardells1997–2003 and 2007–2009 case-control studies. “Elevated HR (decreased survival) for the most malignant glioma type, astrocytoma grade IV, was found for long-term use of mobile and cordless phones.Highest HR was found for cases with first use before the age of 20 years. These results indicate a survival disadvantage for use of wireless phones in that patient group”.
- “The study strengthens the proposed causal association between use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma. Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines”.
Lloyd Morgan, Santosh Kesari and Devra Lee Davis. “Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences.” Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure, vol. 2, no. 4, 2014, pp. 197-204.
- International Cancer registries are showing a rise in brain cancer. Children absorb more microwave radiation, a Class 2 B possible carcinogen than adults. The fetus is in greater danger than children from exposure to MWR. The legal exposure limits have remained unchanged for decades. Cellphone manuals warnings and the 20 cm rule for tablets/laptops violate the “normal operating position” regulation.
Hardell, L., et al. “Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use. International Journal of Oncology, vol. 43, no. 6, 2013, pp. 1833-45.
- For persons with more than 25 years latency period (time since first use until tumour diagnosis) a 3-fold increased risk was found. The risk increased further for tumours located in the most exposed area of the brain, the temporal lobe, to a 5-fold increased risk.
- “This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis”.
Hardell, L., et al. “Pooled analysis of case-control studies on acoustic neuroma diagnosed 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 and use of mobile and cordless phones.” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 43, no. 4, 2013, pp. 1036-44.
- “Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral for both mobile and cordless phones. OR increased per 100 h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per 100 h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones. This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.”
Hardell, L., M. Carlberg. “Using the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones.” Reviews on Environmental Health, vol. 28, no. 2-3, 2013, pp. 97-106.
- “All nine issues on causation according to Hill were evaluated. The criteria on strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, and biologic gradient for evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma were fulfilled.
- Based on the Hill criteria, glioma and acoustic neuroma should be considered to be caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones and regarded as carcinogenic to humans, classifying it as group 1 according to the IARC classification. Current guidelines for exposure need to be urgently revised.”
Hardell, L., M. Carlberg and Mild K. Hansson. “Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma.” Pathophysiology, vol. 20, no. 2, 2013, pp. 85-110.
- “We give an overview of current epidemiological evidence for an increased risk for brain tumours including a meta-analysis of the Hardell group and Interphone results for mobile phone use. It is concluded that one should be careful using incidence data to dismiss results in analytical epidemiology. The IARC carcinogenic classification does not seem to have had any significant impact on governments’ perceptions of their responsibilities to protect public health from this widespread source of radiation”.
Cardis, Elisabeth, et al. “Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 68, no. 9, 2011, pp. 631-40.
- Researchers examined the radiofrequency exposure from mobile phones between subjects from the Interphone study with brain tumors (gliomas and meningiomas) and their matched control cases.
- “An increased risk of glioma was seen in individuals at the highest quintile of radio frequency dose, though reduced risks were seen in the four lower quintiles. When risk was examined as a function of dose received in different time windows before diagnosis, an increasing trend was observed with increasing radio frequency dose (p = 0.01) for exposures 7 years or more in the past.”
- “Case – case analyses, made possible by tumour localisation, indicated an increased risk in the most exposed region of the brain compared with other areas among long-term users. Our results suggest that there may be an increase in risk of glioma in the most exposed area of the brain among long-term and heavy users of mobile phones.”
IARC Working Group.“Non-ionizing radiation, Part II: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields” IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 102, no. 2, 2011, pp. 1-460.
- Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).” (p. 421)
- “Overall, the Working Group reviewed all the available evidence with regard to the use of wireless phones, including both mobile and cordless phones, and the risk of glioma. Time trends were considered, as were several early case–control studies and one cohort study. The evidence from these studies was considered less informative than the results of the INTERPHONE study and the Swedish case–control study. While both of these are susceptible to bias, the Working Group concluded that these findings could not be dismissed as reflecting bias alone, and that a causal interpretation was possible.”
- “In considering the evidence on acoustic neuroma, the Working Group considered the same methodological concerns as for glioma, but concluded that bias was not sufficient to explain the positive findings, particularly those of the study from Sweden.” (p. 412)
Markovà, E., L. Malmgren and I. Belyaev. “Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk.” Environmental Health Perspective, vol. 118, no. 3, 2010, pp. 394–9.
- “The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals.”
Hardell, L. and M. Carlberg. “Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours.” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 35, 2009, pp. 5-17.
- The Hardell-group conducted during 1997-2003 two case control studies on brain tumours including assessment of use of mobile phones and cordless phones.
- Regarding astrocytoma we found highest risk for ipsilateral mobile phone use in the >10 year latency group, OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.0-5.4 and for cordless phone use OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.3-11.
- In total, the risk was highest for cases with first use <20 years age, for mobile phone OR=5.2, 95% CI=2.2-12 and for cordless phone OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10.
- For acoustic neuroma, the highest OR was found for ipsilateral use and >10 year latency, for mobile phone OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.2 and cordless phone OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.6-8.8. Overall highest OR for mobile phone use was found in subjects with first use at age less than 20 years.
Myung S.K., et al. “Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Tumors: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 33, 2009, pp. 5565-72.
- A Meta-Analysis- “The current study found that there is possible evidence linking mobile phone use to an increased risk of tumors from a meta-analysis of low-biased case-control studies. Prospective cohort studies providing a higher level of evidence are needed”.
Sadetzki, Siegal, et al. “Cellular Phone Use and Risk of Benign and Malignant Parotid Gland Tumors–A Nationwide Case-Control Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 167, no. 4, 2007, pp. 457-67.
- This research assessed the relationship between cellphone use and tumors of the parotid gland, utilizing data from Israeli subjects diagnosed at age 18 or more and matched controls.
- Results suggested that there is a relationship between long-term and heavy cellphone use and parotid gland tumor development.
- “Until more evidence becomes available, we believe that the precautionary approach currently adopted by most scientific committees and applied by many governments should continue to be used.”
Hardell, L., et al. “Pooled analysis of two case-control studies on the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003.” International Journal of Oncology, 2006, pp. 509-18.
- In the multivariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of acoustic neuroma was found with the use of analogue phones.
Fertility and Reproduction
Consistent evidence from experimental research, epidemiological studies, in vitro (cells) laboratory studies, and in vivo (animal) studies shows that RF exposure is associated with reduced sperm count, motility and concentration, as well as DNA damage and altered cell structure. Research also shows damage after wireless exposure to the ovaries of rats and mice, as well as changes in the eggs of flies and birds.
Reviews on Reproductive Effects
Houston B., et al. “The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function.” Reproduction, 2016.
- Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in 21. Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species documented elevated levels and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage, due to RF-EMR exposure. Associated with this, RF-EMR treatment reduced antioxidant levels in 6 of 6 studies that studied this phenomenon, while consequences of RF-EMR were successfully ameliorated with the supplementation of antioxidants in all 3 studies that carried out these experiments.
- We propose a mechanistic model in which RF-EMR exposure leads to defective mitochondrial function associated with elevated levels of ROS production and culminates in a state of oxidative stress that would account the varying phenotypes observed in response to RF-EMR exposure.
Sepehrimanesh, Masood and Devra Lee Davis. “Proteomic impacts of electromagnetic fields on the male reproductive system.” Comparative Clinical Pathology, 2016, pp. 1-5.
- This paper reviews proteomic experimental and clinical evidence that EMF acts as a male-mediated teratogen and contributor to infertility.
- Some experimental studies have found that human sperm exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF), either simulated or from mobile phones, developed biomarkers of impaired structure and function, as well as reduced quantity. These encompass pathological, endocrine, and proteomic changes. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, and the proteome is the entire array of proteins—the ultimate biomolecules in the pathways of DNA transcription to translation.
Adams, J., et al. “Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Environment International, vol. 80, 2014, pp. 106-12.
- Our analyses indicate negative associations between mobile phone exposure on sperm viability and motility. The effects on concentration are more equivocal. Further research is required to quantify these effects more precisely and to evaluate the clinical importance of the risk to both sub-fertile men and the general population.
Merhi, Zaher O. “Challenging cell phone impact on reproduction: A Review.” Journal of Assist Reprod Genet, vol. 29, no. 4, 2012, pp. 293–97.
- “A critical review of the literature pertaining to the impact of cell phone RF-EMR on reproduction in male and female animals and humans was performed, with a focus on gonad metabolism, apoptosis of reproductive cells, fertility status, and serum reproductive hormones.”
- “While some animal and human studies revealed alterations in reproductive physiology in both males and females, others did not report any association. The in vitro and in vivo studies to date are highly diverse, very inconsistent in conduct and, in many cases, report different primary outcomes.
- Conclusion: The increasing use of cell phone warrants well-designed studies to ascertain the effect of their RF-EMR on reproduction.”
- See their Figure 1 Showing Potential effects of cell phone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on male and female reproduction in animals and humans.
Gye, Myung Chan and Chan Jin Park. “Review: Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system.” Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, 2012, pp. 1–9.
- “To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success. At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca2+]i may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding, and DNA breaks. The effect of EMF exposure on reproductive function differs according to frequency and wave, strength (energy), and duration of exposure. In the present review, the effects of EMFs on reproductive function are summarized according to the types of EMF, wave type, strength, and duration of exposure at cellular and organism levels.”
- “Conclusions and perspectives: Through in vitro and in vivo studies, EMF exposure was found to alter the reproductive endocrine hormones, gonadal function, embryonic development, pregnancy, and fetal development (Table 1, Figure 2). These effects were different according to the frequency, duration of exposure, and strength of EMFs. Humans in modern society cannot avoid various kinds of EMFs during household and occupational activities, but should be aware of the biological hazard of EMFs. The effort to avoid EMF exposure and techniques to protect or relieve EMF radiation are required to preserve our reproductive potential.”
La Vignera, S., et al. “Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature.” Journal of Andrology, vol. 33, no. 3, 2012, pp. 350-56.
- Review of Research: “The results showed that human spermatozoa exposed to RF-EMR have decreased motility, morphometric abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress, whereas men using mobile phones have decreased sperm concentration, decreased motility (particularly rapid progressive motility), normal morphology, and decreased viability. These abnormalities seem to be directly related to the duration of mobile phone use.”
Desai, N.R., K.K. Kesari and A. Agarwal. “Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system.” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 7, no. 114, 2009.
- “This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed.
- We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system).
- This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling”.
Research Showing Increased Adverse Effects on Fertility and Reproduction
Parsanezhad, M.E., et al. “Exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers adversely affects the quality of human sperm.” International Journal of Radiation Research, vol. 15, no. 1, 2017.
- The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological effects of short term exposure of human sperm to radiofrequency radiation emitted from a commercial mobile phone jammer.
- Semen samples were obtained by masturbation from 50 healthy donors who had referred with their wives to Infertility Treatment Center at the Mother and Child Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
- Samples were either exposed to swim-up, jammer radiation, both, or none.
- Semen samples exposed to radiofrequency radiation showed a significant decrease in sperm motility and increase in DNA fragmentation. It can be concluded that mobile phone jamming might exert adverse reproductive health effects.
Solek P., et al. “Pulsed or continuous electromagnetic field induce p53/p21-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in mouse spermatogenic cells in vitro and thus may affect male fertility.” Toxicology, 2017.
- The present study investigated the effects of pulsed and continuous electromagnetic field (PEMF/CEMF) on mouse spermatogenic cell lines (GC-1 spg and GC-2 spd) in terms of cellular and biochemical features in vitro.
- We evaluated the effect of EMF on mitochondrial metabolism, morphology, proliferation rate, viability, cell cycle progression, oxidative stress balance and regulatory proteins.
- Our results strongly suggest that EMF induces oxidative and nitrosative stress-mediated DNA damage, resulting in p53/p21-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Therefore, spermatogenic cells due to the lack of antioxidant enzymes undergo oxidative and nitrosative stress-mediated cytotoxic and genotoxic events, which contribute to infertility by reduction in healthy sperm cells pool.
- In conclusion, electromagnetic field present in surrounding environment impairs male fertility by inducing p53/p21-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Oyewopo, A.O., et al. “Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.” Andrologia, 2017.
- The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses.
- Adult rats were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days.
- The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p < .05) in the levels of germinal epithelial diameter in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. However, there was degeneration of the epithelia cells in group D when compared to the control and group B rats. Sera levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are markers of reactive oxygen species, significantly increased (MDA) and decreased (SOD), respectively, in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Also sera levels of gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) significantly decreased (p < .05) in groups C and D compared with the control group.
- The study demonstrates that chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile.
Odaci, E., et al. “Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality.” Biotechnic and Histochemistry, vol. 91, no. 1, 2016, pp. 9-19.
- Pregnant rats were divided into control (CG; no treatment) and EMF (EMFG) groups. The EMFG was exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 1 h each day during days 13 – 21 of pregnancy. Newborn rats were either newborn CG (NCG) or newborn EMF groups (NEMFG). On postnatal day 60, a testis and epididymis were removed from each animal. Epididymal semen quality, and lipid and DNA oxidation levels, apoptotic index and histopathological damage to the testis were compared.
- Our findings implicate exposure to 900 MHz EMF for 1 h each day between days 13 and 21 of pregnancy in the development of postnatal alterations in male reproductive structure and function, and associated biochemical markers. These alterations include increased plasma DNA oxidation, decreased sperm motility and vitality, alterations of the normal morphological structure of the testis and epididymis sperm quality at postnatal day 60. We conclude that that 900 MHz EMF exposure during the prenatal period exerts a detrimental effect on testes and epididymis development in rats, and that detrimental effects persist up to 60 days postnatally.
Akdag, M.Z., et al. “Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats?” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol. 75, pt. B, 2016, pp. 116-22.
- The purpose of this study is to reveal whether long term exposure of 2.4GHz frequency RF radiation will cause DNA damage of different tissues such as brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissue and testicular tissues of rats.
- The present study shows that as prolonged exposure to RF radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices causes DNA damage, a low intensity RF radiation could affect male fertility.
- It was observed that the long-term exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency radiation caused an increase in the DNA damage of the brain, liver, kidney, and skin tissue of rats, but this increase was not significant. Therefore it is determined that the long-term exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency radiation does not cause the DNA damage of the brain, liver, kidney, and skin tissue of the rats. However it is concluded that the long-term usage of 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency wireless internet providers could cause a potential risk of DNA damage in the testes.
Yüksel, M., M. Nazıroğlu and M.O. Özkaya. “Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.” Endocrine, vol. 52, no. 2, 2016, pp. 352-62.
- We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring.
- In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring.
- Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices.
- Though our experiment was performed with a long duration of exposure, it cannot be ruled out that repetitive exposures for 2 years or more may have additional effects on rats and humans, especially on young teenagers who often use their mobile phones for several hours per day.
Bakacak, M., et al. “The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study.” Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Science, vol. 31, no. 6, 2015, pp. 287-92.
- This study found a significant decrease in the number of ovarian follicles in rats exposed to an EMF. Further clinical studies are needed to reveal the effects of EMFs on ovarian reserve and infertility.
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electromagnetic field (EMF), generated close to the ovaries, on primordial follicles. A total of 16 rats were used in this study. The study group consisted of rats exposed to an EMF in the abdominal region for 15 min/d for 15 days.
Azadi, Oskouyi E., et al. “Effects of microwaves (950 MHZ mobile phone) on morphometric and apoptotic changes of rabbit epididymis.” Andrologia, 2014.
- The epithelial height and diameter of the epididymis in 3 watt and 6 watt groups ( 2 weeks, 2 h a day with a frequency of 950 MHZ) had a significant decrease, the testosterone level only in 6 watt group was significantly decreased. The rate of apoptosis in the epithelial cells of the epididymis had a significant increase in 6 watt group.
- “This study showed that the microwaves with the frequency of 950 MHz can have negative impacts on morphometric and apoptotic changes of rabbit epididymis.’
Shahin, S., et al. “2.45 GHz Microwave Irradiation Adversely Affects Reproductive Function in Male Mouse, Mus musculus by Inducing Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress”. Free Radical Research, vol. 48, no. 5, 2014, pp. 511-25.
- Significant decrease in sperm count , sperm viability , decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter, degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels and increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed.
- These “adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to microwave radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway.”
Atasoy, H.I., et al. “Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices.” Journal of Pediatric Urology, vol. 9, no. 2, 2013, pp. 223-9.
- Significant increases in serum 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels and 8-hydroxyguanosine staining in the testes of the experimental group indicating DNA damage due to exposure (p < 0.05).
Ghanbari, M., et al. “The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats.” International Journal of Fertility and Sterility, vol. 7, no. 1, 2013, pp. 21-8.
- Sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacity in all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05).
- Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significant decrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05).
- “CONCLUSION: Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility in rats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result in oxidative stress.”
Avendaño C, et al. “Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation.” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 97, no. 1, 2012, pp. 39-45.
- Ex vivo exposure of human spermatozoa to a wireless internet-connected laptop decreased motility and induced DNA fragmentation by a nonthermal effect.
Panagopoulos, D. “Effect of microwave exposure on the ovarian development of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 63, no. 2, 2012, pp. 121-32.
- “The ovarian size of the exposed insects is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding sham-exposed insects, due to destruction of egg chambers by the GSM radiation, after DNA damage and consequent cell death induction in the egg chamber” cells of the virgin females as shown in previous experiments on inseminated females.
- “The difference in ovarian size between sham-exposed and exposed virgin female flies becomes most evident 39-45 h after eclosion when the first eggs within the ovaries are at the late vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages (mid-late oogenesis). More than 45 h after eclosion, the difference in ovarian size decreases, as the first mature eggs of the sham-exposed insects are leaving the ovaries and are laid.”
Agarwal, A., et al. “Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RFEMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study.” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 4, 2009, pp. 1318-25
- “Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility.”
DeIuliis, G.N., et al. “Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro. Plos One, vol. 4, no. 7, 2009.
- In step with increasing SAR, motility and vitality were significantly reduced after RF-EMR exposure, while the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation were significantly elevated (P<0.001). Furthermore, we also observed highly significant relationships between SAR, the oxidative DNA damage bio-marker, 8-OH-dG, and DNA fragmentation after RF-EMR exposure.
- “These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring”.
Gul, A., H. Celebi and S. Uğraş. “The effects of microwave emitted by cellular phones on ovarian follicles in rats.” Arch Gynecol Obstet, vol. 280, no. 5, 2009, pp. 729-33.
- Exposure: 30 minutes every 24 hours pregnancy.
- “ decreased number of follicles in pups exposed to mobile phone microwaves suggest that intrauterine exposure has toxic effects on ovaries.”
- “microwaves of mobile phones might decrease the number of follicles in rats by several known and, no doubt, countless unknown mechanisms.”
Experimental research shows chronic exposure to wireless reduces brain cells and causes brain cell death in the memory and learning centers of the brain. Cell phone radiation has also been shown to alter brain activity in humans. In 2011, NIH research found just 50 minutes of a wireless transmitting device (cell phone) next to the brain increases glucose in the part of the brain most exposed. Preliminary 3G and 4G research has further shown that non-thermal levels of this radiation alter the brain’s electrical activity.
Kim, Ju Hwan, et al. “Long-term exposure to 835 MHz RF-EMF induces hyperactivity, autophagy and demyelination in the cortical neurons of mice.” Scientific Reports vol. 7, no. 41129, 2017.
- This study assessed neuronal effects of RF-EMF on the cerebral cortex of the mouse brain as a proxy for cranial exposure during mobile phone use. The aim was to examine activation of autophagy pathway in the cerebral cortex, a brain region that is located relatively externally.
- C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 835 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 5 hours/day during 12 weeks.
- Induction of autophagy genes and production of proteins including LC3B-II and Beclin1 were increased and accumulation of autolysosome was observed in neuronal cell bodies. However, proapoptotic factor Bax was down-regulted in the cerebral cortex. Importantly, we found that RF-EMF exposure led to myelin sheath damage and mice displayed hyperactivity-like behaviour.
- The data suggest that autophagy may act as a protective pathway for the neuronal cell bodies in the cerebral cortex during radiofrequency exposure. The observations that neuronal cell bodies remained structurally stable but demyelination was induced in cortical neurons following prolonged RF-EMF suggests a potential cause of neurological or neurobehavioral disorders.
Kim, Ju Hwan, et al. “Long-term exposure to 835 MHz RF-EMF induces hyperactivity, autophagy and demyelination in the cortical neurons of mice.” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 41129, 2017.
- This study assessed neuronal effects of RF-EMF on the cerebral cortex of the mouse brain as a proxy for cranial exposure during mobile phone use. The aim was to examine activation of autophagy pathway in the cerebral cortex, a brain region that is located relatively externally.
- C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 835 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg for 5 hours/day during 12 weeks.
- Induction of autophagy genes and production of proteins including LC3B-II and Beclin1 were increased and accumulation of autolysosome was observed in neuronal cell bodies. However, proapoptotic factor Bax was down-regulted in the cerebral cortex. Importantly, we found that RF-EMF exposure led to myelin sheath damage and mice displayed hyperactivity-like behaviour.
- The data suggest that autophagy may act as a protective pathway for the neuronal cell bodies in the cerebral cortex during radiofrequency exposure. The observations that neuronal cell bodies remained structurally stable but demyelination was induced in cortical neurons following prolonged RF-EMF suggests a potential cause of neurological or neurobehavioural disorders.
Tang, Jun, et al. “Exposure to 900MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats.” Brain Research, vol. 1601, 2015, pp. 92-101.
- This study demonstrated, for the first time, the blood-brain barrier and cognitive changes in rats exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) and aims to elucidate the potential molecular pathway underlying these changes.
- A total of 108 male SpragueDawley rats were exposed to a 900 MHz, 1 mW/cm2 EMF or sham (unexposed) for 14 or 28 days (3 h per day). The specific energy absorption rate (SAR) varied between 0.016 (whole body) and 2 W/kg (locally in the head).
- Researchers found that the frequency of crossing platforms and the percentage of time spent in the target quadrant were lower in rats exposed to EMF for 28 days than in rats exposed to EMF for 14 days and unexposed rats. Moreover, 28 days of EMF exposure induced cellular edema and neuronal cell organelle degeneration in the rat. In addition, damaged BBB permeability, which resulted in albumin and HO-1 extravasation were observed in the hippocampus and cortex.
- “Thus, for the first time, we found that EMF exposure for 28 days induced the expression of mkp-1, resulting in ERK dephosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that exposure to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 28 days can significantly impair spatial memory and damage BBB permeability in rat by activating the mkp-1/ERK pathway.”
Dasdag et al. “Effects Of 2.4 Ghz Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Equipment On microRna Expression In Brain Tissue.” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 16, 2015, pp. 1-26.
- The significant effects on microRNAs observed in this study were found from Wi-Fi exposure that was well below the legal limit. CONCLUSION: Long term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative brain diseases originated from the alteration of some miRNAs expression.
Roggeveen S, et al. EEG changes due to experimentally induced 3G mobile phone radiation. PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 6, 2015.
- A15-minute placement of a 3G dialing mobile phone causes direct changes in EEG activity compared to the placement of a sham phone. Thirty-one healthy females participated. All subjects were measured twice: on one of the two days the mobile phone was attached to the ear, the other day to the chest. In this single-blind, cross-over design, assessments in the sham phone condition were conducted directly preceding and following the mobile phone exposure.
- Delta, theta, alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma activity was computed. The association between radiation exposure and the EEG was tested using multilevel random regression analyses with radiation as predictor of main interest. Significant radiation effects were found for the alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma bands. When analyzed separately, ear location of the phone was associated with significant results, while chest placement was not. The results support the notion that EEG alterations are associated with mobile phone usage and that the effect is dependent on site of placement. Further studies are required to demonstrate the physiological relevance of these findings.
Zarei et al. A Challenging Issue in the Etiology of Speech Problems: The Effect of Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields on Speech Problems in the Offspring. Journal of Biomedical and Physical Engineering, vol. 5, no. 3, 2015, pp. 151-4.
- RESULTS: We found a significant association between either the call time (P=0.002) or history of mobile phone use (months used) and speech problems in the offspring (P=0.003). However, other exposures had no effect on the occurrence of speech problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a possible association between maternal exposure to electromagnetic field and speech problems in the offspring. Although a major limitation in our study is the relatively small sample size, this study indicates that the maternal exposure to common sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones can affect the occurrence of speech problems in the offspring.
Bin Lv, et al. The alteration of spontaneous low frequency oscillations caused by acute electromagnetic fields exposure. Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 125, no. 2, 2014, pp. 277-86.
- This study evaluated the possible alteration of regional resting state brain activity induced by the acute radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure (30min) of Long Term Evolution (LTE) signal.
- Researchers found a decreased ALFF value around in left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus and right paracentral lobule after the real exposure. And the decreased fALFF value was also detected in right medial frontal gyrus and right paracentral lobule.
- The study provided the evidences that 30min LTE RF-EMF exposure modulated the spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in some brain regions.
Júnior, L.C., et al. Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Neurological Research, vol. 36, no. 1, 2014.
- Frequency of rearing was increased by 193.3%, revealing an increase in exploratory activity of the animals, which is also related to anxiety, depression, and stressful behavior.
- Our data corroborate that reported by Narayanan et al., 21 who showed in 2012 that animals exposed to mobile phone radiation had an increased frequency of rearing.
Qiao S, et al. Reduction of Phosphorylated Synapsin I (Ser-553) Leads to Spatial Memory Impairment by Attenuating GABA Release after Microwave Exposure in Wistar Rats. PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 4, 2014.
- In the rat experiments, there was a decrease in spatial memory performance after microwave exposure. Both microwave exposure and p-Syn I silencing reduced GABA release and maximal reduction was found for the combination of the two, indicating a synergetic effect.
- p-Syn I (ser-553) was found to play a key role in the impaired GABA release and cognitive dysfunction that was induced by microwave exposure.
Razavinasab M, K. Moazzami and M. Shabani. Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 30, no. 2, 2014, pp. 101-96.
- Mobile phone exposure was mostly associated with a decrease in the number of action potentials fired in spontaneous activity and in response to current injection in both male and female groups. There was an increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in mobile phone rats compared with the control.
- The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats.
- Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques.
Redmayne M, Johansson O. Could myelin damage from radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure help explain the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity? A review of the evidence. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, vol. 17, no. 5, 2014, pp. 247-58.
- “This review of RF-EMF peer-reviewed literature outlines the development of myelin through life, and then considers the evidence for an association between myelin integrity and exposure to low-intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) typical in the modern world.
- There are surprisingly little data available in each area, but considered together a picture begins to emerge in RF-EMF-exposed cases: (1) significant morphological lesions in the myelin sheath of rats; (2) a greater risk of multiple sclerosis in a study subgroup; (3) effects in proteins related to myelin production; and (4) physical symptoms in individuals with functional impairment electrohypersensitivity, many of which are the same as if myelin were affected by RF-EMF exposure, giving rise to symptoms of demyelination.In the latter, there are exceptions; headache is common only in electrohypersensitivity, while ataxia is typical of demyelination but infrequently found in the former group.
- Overall, evidence from in vivo and in vitro and epidemiological studies suggests an association between RF-EMF exposure and either myelin deterioration or a direct impact on neuronal conduction, which may account for many electrohypersensitivity symptoms. The most vulnerable are likely to be those in utero through to at least mid-teen years, as well as ill and elderly individuals.
Saikhedkar N, et al. Effects of mobile phone radiation (900 MHz radiofrequency) on structure and functions of rat brain. Neurological Research, vol. 2, no. 6, 2014, pp. 2499-504.
- Thus our findings indicate extensive neurodegeneration on exposure to radio waves. Increased production of reactive oxygen species due to exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation are indicating extensive neurodegeneration in selective areas of CA1, CA3, DG, and cerebral cortex. This extensive neuronal damage results in alterations in behavior related to memory and learning.
Jing J, et al. “The influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 31, no. 1, 2012, pp. 57-66.
- Pregnant rats were exposed to different intensities of microwave radiation from cellular phones.
- Significant content differences were found in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA) after fetal brains were assayed.
- “Through this study, we concluded that receiving a certain period of microwave radiation from cellular phones during pregnancy has certain harm on fetal rat brains.”
Sirav B, and N. Seyhan. Effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in male and female rats. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, 2011, pp. 253-60.
- A significant increase in albumin was found in the brains of the RF-exposed male rats when compared to sham-exposed male brains.
- Radio frequency radiation “at levels below the international limits can affect the vascular permeability in the brain of male rats. The possible risk of RFR exposure in humans is a major concern for the society.”
Volkow, N.D., et al. Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 305, no. 8, 2011, pp. 808-13.
- A 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna.
Maskey, Dhiraj, et al. “Effect of 835 MHz radiofrequency radiation exposure on calcium binding proteins in the hippocampus of the mouse brain.” Brain Research, no. 1313, 2010, pp. 232-41.
- Radiofrequency (RF) radiation might alter intracellular signaling pathways through changes in calcium (Ca(2+)) permeability across cell membranes. Changes in the expression of calcium binding proteins (CaBP) like calbindin D28-k (CB) and calretinin (CR) could indicate impaired Ca(2+)homeostasis due to EMF exposure.
- CB and CR expression were measured with immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus of mice after EMF exposure at 835 MHz for different exposure times and absorption rates.
- Body weights did not change significantly. CB immunoreactivity (IR) displayed moderate staining of cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) areas and prominently stained granule cells. CR IR revealed prominently stained pyramidal cells with dendrites running perpendicularly in the CA area. Exposure for 1 month produced almost complete loss of pyramidal cells in the CA1 area.
- CaBP differences could cause changes in cellular Ca(2+)levels, which could have deleterious effect on normal hippocampal functions concerned with neuronal connectivity and integration.
Nittby H, et al. Effects of microwave radiation upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier. European Journal of Oncology, vol. 5, 2010, pp. 333-55.
- EMF radiation leads to increased permeability of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) at non-thermal exposure levels.
- Damaging effects from radiofrequency EMF upon neurons has been shown after 28 days and 50 days.
- “The human BBB is very similar to the rodent BBB… it is our sincere belief, that it is more probable than unlikely, that non-thermal EMF from mobile phones and base stations do have effects upon the human brain.
Sonmez, O.F., et al. “Purkinje cell number decreases in the adult female rat cerebellum following exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field.” Brain Research, vol. 1356, 2010, pp. 95-101.
- In the presented study, the effects on the number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of 16-week (16 weeks) old female rats were investigated following exposure to 900 MHz EMF.
- Three groups of rats, a control group (CG), sham exposed group (SG) and an electromagnetic field exposed group (EMFG) were used in this study.
- Results showed that the total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of the EMFG was significantly lower than those of CG (p< 0.004) and SG (p< 0.002). In addition, there was no significant difference at the 0.05 level between the rats’ body and brain weights in the EMFG and CG or SG. Therefore, it is suggested that long duration exposure to 900 MHz EMF leads to decreases of Purkinje cell numbers in the female rat cerebellum
Bas, O., et al. “900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects qualitative and quantitative features of hippocampal pyramidal cells in adult rat.” Brain Research, no. 1265, 2009, pp. 178–85.
- A statistically significant decrease in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus and an increase in dark cells.
Bas O, et al. Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 25, 2009, pp. 377–84.
- Results: A significant reduction in the total number of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus, which involves short-term memory and learning.
- Sixteen-week old rats are comparable to the age of human teenagers.
Naziroğlu M. and Gumral. Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat. International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 85, no. 8, 2009, pp. 680-9.
- Rats exposed to 2.45 GHz 60 min/day for 28 days had lower cortex brain vitamin A (p < 0.05), vitamin C (p < 0.01) and vitamin E (p < 0.05) concentrations.
Odaci E, O. Bas and S. Kaplan. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological and histopathological study. Brain Research, no. 1238, 2008, 224–9.
- Prenatal exposure caused a progressive postnatal decline in the number of granule cells of dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of offspring.
Leszczynski, Dariusz, et al. “Non‐thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer‐and blood‐brain barrier‐related effects.” Differentiation, vol. 70, no. 2‐3, 2002, pp. 120-9.
- Researchers examined whether non-thermal exposures of cultures of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone microwave radiation could activate stress response.
- Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in bloodbrain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers.
- “We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects.”
Cognition and Impaired Memory
“We have shown that behavioral problems in mice that resemble ADHD are caused by cell phone exposure in the womb,” said Dr. Hugh Taylor of Yale Medical School. “The rise in behavioral disorders in human children may be in part due to fetal cellular telephone irradiation exposure.”
Yale University research found prenatally exposed pups had impaired memory, increased hyperactivity, and altered brains—consistent with a growing literature. Many studies have now demonstrated that wireless signals can damage cognitive abilities such as learning, memory, attention, and reaction times.
Ntzouni, Maria P, Aikaterini Skouroliakou, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos & Lukas H. Margaritis. “Transient and cumulative memory impairments induced by GSM 1.8 GHz cell phone signal in a mouse model.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 32, no. 1, 2013, pp. 95-120.
- This study investigates the transient and cumulative impairments in spatial and non-spatial memory of C57Bl/6J mice exposed to GSM 1.8 GHz signal for 90 min daily by a typical cellular (mobile) phone at a specific absorption rate value of 0.11 W/kg.
- Free-moving male mice 2 months old were irradiated in two experimental protocols, lasting for 66 and for 148 days respectively.
- One-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant impairments of both types of memory gradually accumulating, with more pronounced effects on the spatial memory. The impairments persisted even 2 weeks after interruption of the 8 weeks daily exposure, whereas the memory of mice as detected by both tasks showed a full recovery approximately 1 month later. Intermittent every other day exposure for 1 month had no effect on both types of memory.
Aldad TS, Gan G, Gao XB, Taylor HS. (2012). Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 MHz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Scientific Reports; 2, 312.
- the exposed group had dose responsive impaired neurologic transmission in the prefrontal cortex.
- the mice exposed in utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory.
Deshmukh P.S. et al., 2015. Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation. Int J Toxicol. 34(3): 284-290.
- “The results showed declined cognitive function, elevated HSP70 level, and DNA damage in the brain of microwave-exposed animals. The results indicated that, chronic low-intensity microwave exposure in the frequency range of 900 to 2450 MHz may cause hazardous effects on the brain.”
Deshmukh PS, Banerjee BD, Abegaonkar MP, Megha K, Ahmed RS, Tripathi AK, Mediratta PK. (2013). Effect of low level microwave radiation exposure on cognitive function and oxidative stress in rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys; 50(2), 114-9.
- “Results showed significant impairment in cognitive function and increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increase in levels of MDA (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and protein carbonyl (a marker of protein oxidation) and unaltered GSH content.
- “Low level MW radiation had significant effect on cognitive function and was also capable of leading to oxidative stress.”
Megha, K Deshmukh, PS, Banerjee, BD, Tripathi, AK, Abegaonkar, MP. (2012). Microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and inflammation in brain of Fischer rats. Indian J Experimental Biology. 50(12), 889-896.
- “Significant impairment in cognitive function and induction of oxidative stress in brain tissues of microwave exposed rats were observed.”
- Increased oxidative stress due to microwave exposure may contribute to cognitive impairment and inflammation in brain.”
Nittby H, Grafström G, Tian DP, Malmgren L, Brun A. (2008). Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation. Bioelectromagnetics. 29, 219–232.
- GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02).
- “Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).”
Narayanan S.N. et al., 2015. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Metab Brain Dis. 30(5): 1193-1206.
- “Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats.” “RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial.” “RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region.” “Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.”
Narayanan SN, Kumar RS, Karun KM, Nayak SB, Bhat PG, Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Jun 3.
- The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats.
- Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats. Memory retention test performed 24 h after the last training revealed minor spatial memory deficit in RF-EMR exposed group. However, RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial. Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. RF-EMR exposure influenced dendritic arborization pattern of both apical and basal dendritic trees in RF-EMR exposed rats.
- Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.
Papageorgiou C, Hountala CD, Maganioti AE, Kyprianou MA, Rabavilas AD, Papadimitriou GN, Capsalis CN. (2011). Effects of wi-fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience. 10(2), 189-202.
- A WiFi access point was 1.5 meters away during blind exposures.
- In conclusion, the present findings suggest that Wi-Fi exposure may exert gender-related alterations on neural activity associated with the amount of attentional resources engaged during a linguistic test adjusted to induce Working Memory.
Schoeni A, Roser K, Röösli M. Memory performance, wireless communication and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: A prospective cohort study in adolescents. Environ Int. 2015 Oct 13;85:343-351. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.025. [Epub ahead of print]
- BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate whether memory performance in adolescents is affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from wireless device use or by the wireless device use itself due to non-radiation related factors in that context.
- METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study with 439 adolescents. Data were analysed using a longitudinal approach.
- Since we found stronger associations between RF-EMF doses and figural memory but not verbal memory, one could speculate that this might be due to different brain areas involved in the verbal and figural memory tasks.
- CONCLUSIONS: A change in memory performance over one year was negatively associated with cumulative duration of wireless phone use and more strongly with RF-EMF dose. This may indicate that RF-EMF exposure affects memory performance.
Epidemiological studies have shown associations between exposures and behavioral issues in children (and experimental test subjects). For example, a recent study showed a significant dose-response relationship between the number and duration of voice calls made on cell phones and ADHD risk among children who were also exposed to lead in their environment. Exposure to cell phones prenatally and postnatally is associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems.
Pall, Martin L. “Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression.” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy vol. 75, pt. B, 2016, pp. 43-51.
- This paper considers the mechanism by which low intensity microwave EMFs impact the cells of our bodies, how that mechanism may be predicted to impact the nervous system, evidence for such impact from experimental animal studies, genetic polymorphism evidence for that mechanism acting in humans to produce neuropsychiatric effects and finally, the epidemiological evidence for such effects in human populations with repeated low level microwave EMF exposure.
- Results show that microwave EMFs activate voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) concentrated in the brain. VGCC activity causes widespread neuropsychiatric effects in humans (genetic studies). Furthermore, animal studies show such low level MWV EMFs have diverse high impacts in the brain.
Aldad TS, Gan G, Gao XB, Taylor HS. (2012). Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Scientific Reports. 2, 312.
- Mice that were exposed to radiation tended to be more hyperactive and had reduced memory capacity.
- Authors attributed the behavioral changes to an effect during pregnancy on the development of neurons in the prefrontal cortex region of the brain.
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. (2012). Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. J Epidemiol Community Health. 66(6), 524-9.
- The findings of the previous publication were replicated in this separate group of participants demonstrating that cell phone use was associated with behavioural problems at age 7 years in children, and this association was not limited to early users of the technology.
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. (2008). Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioral problems in children. Epidemiology. 19(4), 523-9.
- Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry.
Feizhou Zheng, Peng Gao, Mindi He, Min Li, Changxi Wang, Qichang Zeng, Zhou Zhou, Zhengping Yu, and Lei Zhang. Association between mobile phone use and inattention in 7102 Chinese adolescents: a population-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 2014, 14:1022 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1022
- A cross-sectional study with 7720 middle school students assessed for inattention and information on Mobile phone use.
- Results: Inattention in adolescents was significantly associated with mobile phone (MP) ownership, the time spent on entertainment on MP per day, the position of the MP during the day and the mode of the MP at night.
- The strongest association between inattention and the time spent on the MP was among students who spent more than 60 minutes per day playing on their MP.
Narayanan SN, Kumar RS, Kedage V, Nalini K, Nayak S, Bhat PG, (2014) Evaluation of oxidant stress and antioxidant defense in discrete brain regions of rats exposed to 900 MHz radiation. Bratislava Medical Journal; 115(5):260-6.
- Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) were allotted into control, sham and exposed groups. Exposed group was exposed to 900 MHz of RF-EMR (1 hr/day with peak power density of 146.60 µW/cm2) from an activated GSM mobile phone for four weeks. On 29th day, behavioral analysis was done and later biochemical parameters were studied in amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and cerebellum.
- Altered behavioral performances were found in RF-EMR-exposed rats. Additionally, elevated TBARS level was found with all brain regions studied. RF-EMR exposure significantly decreased TA in the amygdala and cerebellum but its level was not significantly changed in other brain regions. GST activity was significantly decreased in the hippocampus but, its activity was unaltered in other brain regions studied.
- Conclusion: “RF-EMR exposure for a month induced oxidative stress in rat brain, but its magnitude was different in different regions studied. RF-EMR-induced oxidative stress could be one of the underlying causes for the behavioral deficits seen in rats after RF-EMR exposure.”
Research in humans shows that chronic mobile phone usage results in high-frequency hearing loss and inner ear damage. Research has also shown a significant risk of tumors on the auditory nerve in the brain (acoustic neuromas). Experimental research with rodents shows signs of neuronal degeneration in the auditory system after exposure.
Mediators and Sanchez, (2015) Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radio frequency radiation, Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, September 2015
- A literature review: Results: EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity), and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus.
- Conclusion: There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus.
Dhiraj Maskey, Myeung Ju Kim. (2014). Immunohistochemical Localization of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Superior Olivary Complex of Mice after Radiofrequency Exposure. Neuroscience Letters. 564, 78-82
- Significant decrements of BDNF immunoreactivity were noted in the lateral superior olive, medial superior olive, superior paraolivary nucleus and medial nucleus of the trapezoid body
- The decrease in the immunoreactivity of neurotrophic factors suggests a detrimental effect of RF exposure in the auditory nuclei.
Oktay M, Dasdag S. (2006). Effects of intensive and moderate cellular phone use on hearing function. Electromagn Biol Med. 25(1), 13-21.
- Brainstem evoked response audiometric (BERA) and pure tone audiometric (PTA) methods were used to measure the effects of exposure on hearing function of the subjects.
- Detection thresholds in those who talked approximately 2 h per day were found to be higher than those in either moderate users or control subjects.
- This study shows that a higher degree of hearing loss is associated with long-term exposure to electromagnetic (EM) field generated by cellular phones.
Panda N, Munjal S, Bakshi J. (2007). Audiological Disturbances in Long-Term Mobile Phone Users. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation.
- 100 people who had used mobile phones for over a year suffered increases in the degree of hearing loss over the span of 12 months.
- The study discovered that people who used their phones for more than 60 minutes a day had a worse hearing threshold than those with less use.
- The authors warn users of cell phones to look out for ear symptoms such as ear warmth, ear fullness, and ringing in the ears (tinnitus) as early warning signs that you may have an auditory abnormality. They also suggest the use of earphones, which they found to be safer than holding a mobile phone up to the ears.
Sudan M, Kheifets L, Arah OA, Olsen J. (2013). Cell phone exposures and hearing loss in children in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 27(3), 247- 57.
- We observed weak associations between cell phone use and hearing loss at age 7, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the traditional logistic regression, MSM and DRE models being 1.21 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99, 1.46], 1.23 [95% CI 1.01, 1.49] and 1.22 [95% CI 1.00, 1.49], respectively.
- CONCLUSIONS:Our findings could have been affected by various biases and are not sufficient to conclude that cell phone exposures have an effect on hearing. This is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to investigate this potentially important association among children, and replication of these findings is needed.
Velayutham P, Govindasamy GK, Raman R, Prepageran N, Ng KH. (2014). High-frequency hearing loss among mobile phone users. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 66(1), 169-72.
- Prospective single blinded study that used high-frequency audiometry.
- This study showed that there is significant loss in the dominant ear compared to the non-dominant ear (P < 0.05). Chronic usage mobile phone revealed high frequency hearing loss in the dominant ear (mobile phone used) compared to the non dominant ear.
Özgür A, Tümkaya L, Terzi S, Kalkan Y, Erdivanlı ÖÇ, Dursun E. Effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves on the auditory system. Acta Otolaryngol. 2015 Apr 2:1-6. [Epub ahead of print].
- Twelve adult Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups. The study group was exposed to the electromagnetic waves over a period of 30 days.
- The histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the exposed rats showed neuronal degeneration signs, such as increased vacuolization in the cochlear nucleus, pyknotic cell appearance, and edema.
- The results support that chronic electromagnetic field exposure may cause damage by leading to neuronal degeneration of the auditory system.
Seckin E, Suren Basar F, Atmaca S, Kaymaz FF, Suzer A, Akar A, Sunan E, Koyuncu M. The effect of radiofrequency radiation generated by a Global System for Mobile Communications source on cochlear development in a rat model. J Laryngol Otol. 2014 May 1:1-6.
- This study aimed to determine the effect of radiofrequency radiation generated by 900 and 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications sources on cochlear development in the rat model.
- Electron microscopic evaluation revealed significant differences among the groups with regard to the number of normal, apoptotic and necrotic cells. Conclusion: The findings indicated cellular structural damage in the cochlea caused by radiofrequency radiation exposure during cochlear development in the rat model.
Khullar S, Sood A, Sood S. Auditory Brainstem Responses and EMFs Generated by Mobile Phones. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Dec;65(Suppl 3):645-9. Epub 2013 Sep 7.
- “The aim of our study was to advance our understanding of the potential adverse effects of GSM mobile phones on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). 60 subjects were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 20 each based on their usage of mobile phones.”
- “Based on our findings we concluded that long term exposure to mobile phones may affect conduction in the peripheral portion of the auditory pathway. However more research needs to be done to study the long term effects of mobile phones particularly of newer technologies like smart phones and 3G.”
Research shows children who used cell phones or who were exposed prenatally to wireless radiation are at higher risk of developing headaches.
- “Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry. These associations may be noncausal and may be due to unmeasured confounding. If real, they would be of public health concern given the widespread use of this technology.”
Küçer N, Pamukçu T. Self-reported symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a questionnaire study. Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Jan;33(1):15-7.
- “The study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p < 0.05).”
Madhuri Sudan, Leeka Kheifets, Onyebuchi Arah, Jorn Olsen, Lonnie Zeltzer. (2012). Prenatal and Postnatal Cell Phone Exposures and Headaches in Children. Open Pediatrics Medical Journal. 46-52.
- Children with cell phone exposure had higher odds of migraines and headache-related symptoms than children with no exposure.
Szyjkowska A, Gadzicka E, Szymczak W, Bortkiewicz A. (2014). The risk of subjective symptoms in mobile phone users in Poland – An epidemiological study. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 27(2), 293-303.
- a questionnaire survey of 53 questions.
- Headaches were reported significantly more often by the people who talked frequently and long in comparison with other users
- Continuous headache, persisting for longer than 6 h since the end of a call, was reported by 26% of the subjects.
- Our results show that the mobile phone users may experience subjective symptoms, the intensity of which depends on the intensity of use of mobile phones.
Cho et. al., A cross-sectional study of the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of ill health. Environ Health Toxicol. 2016 Oct 26;31:e2016022.
- Mobile phone call duration was associated with the severity of headaches.
The radiation from wireless transmitting devices damages sleep. For example, this radiation has been shown to delay entrance into deep non-REM sleep and decrease time spent in this stage of sleep. The quantity and quality of sleep has a profound impact on learning and memory. A sleep-deprived person cannot focus or learn efficiently. Sleep also has a critical role in the consolidation of memory essential for learning new information.
Hillert L, Akerstedt T, Lowden A, Wiholm C, Kuster N, Ebert S, Boutry C, Moffat SD, Berg M, Arnetz BB. (2007). The Effects of 884 MHz GSM Wireless Communication Signals on Self-reported Symptom and Sleep (EEG)- An Experimental Provocation Study. Bioelectromagnetics. 3(7), 1148-1150.
- A prolonged latency to reach the first cycle of deep sleep (stage 3).
- The amount of stage 4 sleep was also decreased in exposed subjects.
- Subjects reported more headaches during exposures vs. sham exposure.
47. Mann and J. Röschke. (1996). “Effects of Pulsed High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Human Sleep,” Neuropsychobiology. 33, 41-47.
- Shortening of sleep onset latency and a REM (Rapid Eye Movement) suppressive effect with reduction of duration and percentage of REM sleep.
- “The effects observed possibly could be associated with alterations of memory and learning functions.”
Regel SJ1, Tinguely G, Schuderer J, Adam M, Kuster N, Landolt HP, Achermann P. (2007). Pulsed radio-frequency electromagnetic fields: dose-dependent effects on sleep, the sleep EEG and cognitive performance. Journal of Sleep Research. 16(3), 253-8.
- Showed a dose-response relationship between EMF field intensity and its effects on brain physiology as demonstrated by changes in the sleep EEG and in cognitive performance.
Schmid MR, Murbach M, Lustenberger C, Maire M, Kuster N, Achermann P, Loughran SP. (2012). Sleep EEG alterations: effects of different pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Sleep Research. 21(1), 50-8.
- “Consistent with previous findings, our results provide further evidence that pulse-modulated RF EMF alter brain physiology”.
- Modulation frequency components within a physiological range may be sufficient to induce these effects.
Oxidative stress is the formation of tissue-damaging free radicals. A recent research review shows 93 out of 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies indicate that radiofrequency radiation increases oxidative stress. This stress response damages cells and DNA through the production of peroxides and free radicals. Oxidative stress is implicated in the cause of many diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.
- The aim of the present study was to investigate oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney tissues of male Wistar rats that pre- and postnatally exposed to wireless electromagnetic field (EMF) with an internet frequency of 2.45 GHz for a long time.
- Tubular injury was detected in most of the specimens in post-natal groups. Immunohistochemical analysis showed low-intensity staining with Bax in cortex, high-intensity staining with Bcl-2 in cortical and medullar areas of pre-natal group (p values, 0.000, 0.002, 0.000, respectively) when compared with sham group. Bcl2/Bax staining intensity ratios of medullar and cortical area was higher in pre-natal group than sham group (p = 0.018, p = 0.011).
- Based on this study, it is thought that chronic pre- and post-natal period exposure to wireless internet frequency of EMF may cause chronic kidney damages; staying away from EMF source in especially pregnancy and early childhood period may reduce negative effects of exposure on kidney.
- Read the study here.
Igor Yakymenko, Olexandr Tsybulin, Evgeniy Sidorik, Diane Henshel, Olga Kyrylenko, and Sergiy Kyrylenko, Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. July 7, 2015.
- 93 out of 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems.
- A wide pathogenic potential of the induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling pathways explains a range of biological/health effects of lowintensity RFR, which include both cancer and non-cancer pathologies. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that low-intensity RFR is an expressive oxidative agent for living cells with a high pathogenic potential and that the oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation.
Boderaet al. Influence of electromagnetic field (1800 MHz) on lipid peroxidation in brain, blood, liver and kidney in rats. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2015;28(4):751-9. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00255
- Administration of tramadol together with the EMF exposure enhanced lipid peroxidation in kidneys, blood, and brain, both in healthy rats and those with inflammation, which was similar to the results of our previous study carried out by another method.
- It can be concluded that the increased risk of oxidative stress in various organs due to electromagnetic radiation should be taken into account. However, this risk burden is probably determined by the duration of exposure, SAR and also additional environmental factors.
- Open Access Paper: http://ijomeh.eu/pdf-2434-2887?filename=Influence%20of.pdf
Augner C, Hacker GW, Oberfeld G, Florian M, Hitzl W, Hutter J, Pauser G. (2010). Effects of exposure to GSM mobile phone base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and immunoglobulin A. Biomed Environ Sci. 23(3), 199-207.
- Increases of cortisol and a higher concentration of alpha-amylase were detected in subjects under various EMF exposure scenarios.
- RF-EMF in considerably lower field densities than ICNIRP-guidelines may influence certain psychobiological stress markers.
Cetin H, Nazıroğlu M, Celik O, Yüksel M, Pastacı N, Ozkaya MO. (2014). Liver antioxidant stores protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced oxidative stress in rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 27(6).
- “EMR-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver was reduced during the development of offspring.EMR could be considered as a cause of oxidative brain and liver injury in growing rats”.
Hamzany Y, Feinmesser R, Shpitzer T, Mizrachi A, Hilly O, Hod R, Bahar G, Otradnov I, Gavish M, Nagler RM.(2013). Is Human Saliva an Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Using Mobile Phones? Antioxid Redox Signal.18(6), 622-7.
- Significant increase in all salivary oxidative stress indices studied in mobile phone users.
- Salivary flow, total protein, albumin, and amylase activity were decreased in mobile phone users.
- “These observations lead to the hypothesis that the use of mobile phones may cause oxidative stress and modify salivary function.”
Hou Q1, Wang M, Wu S, Ma X, An G, Liu H, Xie F. (2014). Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells. Electromagn Biol Med.
- Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure
- The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05).
- These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.
Nazıroğlu M, Yüksel M, Köse SA, Özkaya MO. (2013). Recent reports of Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced radiation on oxidative stress and reproductive signaling pathways in females and males. J Membr Biol. 246(12), 869-75.
- Review Paper: “In conclusion, the results of current studies indicate that oxidative stress from exposure to Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced EMR is a significant mechanism affecting female and male reproductive systems.”
Tomruk A1, Guler G, Dincel AS. (2010). The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on hepatic oxidative DNA and lipid damage in nonpregnant, pregnant, and newly born rabbits. Cell Biochem Biophys. 56(1), 39-47.
- “the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RF radiation exposure may lead to oxidative destruction as being indicators of subsequent reactions that occur to form oxygen toxicity in tissues”
Yakymenko. (2014). Low intensity radiofrequency radiation: a new oxidant for living cells.
Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 3(1), 1-3.
- A “strong non-thermal character of biological effects of RFR has been documented” and “it is clear that the substantial overproduction of ROS in living cells under low intensity RFR exposure could cause a broad spectrum of health disorders and diseases, including cancer in humans.
- Undoubtedly, this calls for the further intensive research in the area, as well as to a precautionary approach in routine usage of wireless devices.”
Studies at non-thermal (no measurable temperature change) levels of microwave exposures show chromosomal instability, altered gene expression, gene mutations, DNA fragmentation, and DNA structural breaks. Genetic mutations and cellular damage can potentially contribute to cancer growth. Strong effects from microwaves have been found in stem cells. Since stem cells are more active in children, researchers are concerned that children are at increased risk.
While electromagnetic fields may not directly damage DNA, research indicates they could set into motion a series of biological impacts that result in genetic damage.
A 2015 experimental study found that 2.4 GHz (Wi-Fi radiation) can alter expression of some of the miRNAs, and the study’s authors concluded that “long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases originated from the alteration of some miRNA expression and more studies should be devoted to the effects of RF radiation on miRNA expression levels.”
Dr. Lai analyzed research since 2006 and found there are more papers reporting effects from exposure than no effect: New radiofrequency studies report that 65% of genetic studies show effects and 35% do not show effects.
De Luca, Chiara, et al. “Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention.” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2014, no. 924184, 2014.
- Researchers hypothesized that “sensitivity-related illnesses” (SRI), not being merely psychogenic, may share organic determinants of impaired detoxification of common physic-chemical stressors. Based on our previous MCS studies, we tested a panel of 12 metabolic blood redox-related parameters and of selected drug-metabolizing-enzyme gene polymorphisms, on 153 EHS, 147 MCS, and 132 control Italians, confirming MCS altered –0.0001) glutathione-(GSH), GSH-peroxidase/S-transferase, and catalase erythrocyte activities.
- Results show comparable—though milder—metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. Severe depletion of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids with increased ω6/ω3 ratio was confirmed in MCS, but not in EHS. We also identified significantly altered distribution-versus-control of the CYP2C19*1/*2 SNP variants in EHS, and a 9.7-fold increased risk (OR: 95% C.–74.5) of developing EHS for the haplotype (null)GSTT1 + (null)GSTM1 variants.
Schwarz C, et al., 2008, Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS, 1,950 MHz) induce genotoxic effects in vitro in human fibroblasts but not in lymphocytes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. Feb 16
- OBJECTIVE: Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) was recently introduced as the third generation mobile communication standard in Europe. This was done without any information on biological effects and genotoxic properties of these particular high-frequency electromagnetic fields. This is discomforting, because genotoxic effects of the second generation standard Global System for Mobile Communication have been reported after exposure of human cells in vitro.
- METHODS: Human cultured fibroblasts of three different donors and three different short-term human lymphocyte cultures were exposed to 1,950 MHz UMTS below the specific absorption rate (SAR) safety limit of 2 W/kg. The alkaline comet assay and the micronucleus assay were used to ascertain dose and time-dependent genotoxic effects. Five hundred cells per slide were visually evaluated in the comet assay and comet tail factor (CTF) was calculated. In the micronucleus assay 1,000 binucleated cells were evaluated per assay. The origin of the micronuclei was determined by fluorescence labeled anticentromere antibodies. All evaluations were performed under blinded conditions.
- RESULTS: UMTS exposure increased the CTF and induced centromere-negative micronuclei (MN) in human cultured fibroblasts in a dose and time-dependent way. Incubation for 24 h at a SAR of 0.05 W/kg generated a statistically significant rise in both CTF and MN (P = 0.02). At a SAR of 0.1 W/kg the CTF was significantly increased after 8 h of incubation (P = 0.02), the number of MN after 12 h (P = 0.02). No UMTS effect was obtained with lymphocytes, either unstimulated or stimulated with Phytohemagglutinin.
- CONCLUSION: UMTS exposure may cause genetic alterations in some but not in all human cells in vitro.
Burlaka A, Tsybulin O, Sidorik E, Lukin S, Polishuk V, Tsehmistrenko S, Yakymenko.(2013). Overproduction of free radical species in embryonal cells exposed to low intensity radiofrequency radiation. Exp Oncol. 35(3), 219-225.
- “Exposure of developing quail embryos to extremely low intensity RF-EMR of GSM 900 MHz during at least one hundred and fifty-eight hours leads to a significant overproduction of free radicals/reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage of DNA in embryo cells. These oxidative changes may lead to pathologies up to oncogenic transformation of cells.”
Blank M, Goodman R.(2011). DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields. Int J Radiat Biol. 87(4), 409-15.
- “The wide frequency range of interaction with EMF is the functional characteristic of a fractal antenna, and DNA appears to possess the two structural characteristics of fractal antennas, electronic conduction and self symmetry. These properties contribute to greater reactivity of DNA with EMF in the environment, and the DNA damage could account for increases in cancer epidemiology, as well as variations in the rate of chemical evolution in early geologic history.”
Guler G, Tomruk A, Ozgur E, Seyhan N. (2010). The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and lipid damage in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits and their newborns. Gen Physiol Biophys. 29(1), 59-66.
- Malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels of non-pregnant and pregnant radiofrequency exposed animals significantly increased compared with not-exposed controls.
- The authors conclude, that 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency exposure of non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits for seven days resulted in the release of secondary messengers, such as free radicals, leading to oxidative destruction in lipids and DNA.
- Rabbits prenatally exposed to cell phone radiation developed more indicators of DNA damage such as greater amounts of free radicals.
Güler G , Tomruk A , Ozgur E , Sahin D , Sepici A , Altan N, Seyhan N. (2012). The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and lipid damage in female and male infant rabbits. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 88(4), 367–373.
- Lipid peroxidation levels in the liver tissues of female and male infant rabbits increased under RF radiation exposure. Liver 8-hydroxy-2 ’ -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels of female rabbits exposed to RF radiation were also found to increase when compared with the levels of non-exposed infants.
- Conclusion: Consequently, it can be concluded that GSM-like RF radiation may induce biochemical changes by increasing free radical attacks to structural biomolecules in the rabbit as an experimental animal model.
Ruediger HW. (2009). Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Pathophysiology. 16(2-3), 89-102.
- Review:101 publications reviewed on the genotoxicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in vivo and in vitro. Of these 49 report a genotoxic effect and 42 do not. In addition, 8 studies failed to detect an influence on the genetic material, but showed that RF-EMF enhanced the genotoxic action of other chemical or physical agents…Taking altogether there is ample evidence that RF-EMF can alter the genetic material of exposed cells in vivo and in vitro and in more than one way. This genotoxic action may be mediated by microthermal effects in cellular structures, formation of free radicals, or an interaction with DNA-repair mechanisms.
Tomruk A, Guler G, Dincel AS. (2010). The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on hepatic oxidative DNA and lipid damage in nonpregnant, pregnant, and newly born rabbits. Cell Biochem Biophys. 56(1), 39-47.
- This study looked at the biological effects of whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure on liver oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels in nonpregnant, pregnant New Zealand White rabbits, and in their newly borns.
- Key Findings: In nonpregnant RF exposed and pregnant RF exposed malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferrous oxidation in xylenol orange (FOX) levels were increased compared to non pregnant controls.
- In this study, we found that whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RF exposure for 15 min/day for a week could affect lipid peroxidation by increasing MDA and FOX levels in nonpregnants and pregnant.
- “the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RF radiation exposure may lead to oxidative destruction as being indicators of subsequent reactions that occur to form oxygen toxicity in tissues”
Xu S, Zhou Z, Zhang L, Yu Z, Zhang W, Wang Y, Wang X, Li M, Chen Y, Chen C, He M, Zhang G, Zhong M. (2010). Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons. Brain Research. 22(1311), 189-96.
- “In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24 h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Concomitant with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient antioxidant in the brain.
- These results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain.”
Zhijian C, Xiaoxue L, Yezhen L, Shijie C, Lifen J, Jianlin L, Deqiang L, Jiliang H. (2009) Impact of 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on DNA damage and repair induced by doxorubicin in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells. Mutat Res. 695(1-2), 16-21.
- “In vitro study, a comet assay was used to determine whether 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR, SAR of 2W/kg) can influence DNA repair in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells exposed to doxorubicin (DOX)
- DNA damage was detected at 0h, 6h, 12h, 18h and 24h after exposure to DOX via the comet assay, and the percent of DNA in the tail (% tail DNA) served as the indicator of DNA damage.
- The results demonstrated that (1) RFR could not directly induce DNA damage of human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells; (2) DOX could significantly induce DNA damage of human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells with the dose-effect relationship, and there were special repair characteristics of DNA damage induced by DOX; (3) E-E-E type (exposure to RFR for 2h, then simultaneous exposure to RFR and DOX, and exposure to RFR for 6h, 12h, 18h and 24h after exposure to DOX) combinative exposure could obviously influence DNA repair at 6h and 12h after exposure to DOX for four DOX doses (0.075microg/ml, 0.10microg/ml, 0.15microg/ml and 0.20microg/ml) in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells.”
Endocrine System Damage
Research has shown impacts to the pineal gland, adrenal gland, and thyroid gland. These glands balance hormones that involve sleep. Research has shown that low levels of microwave exposure can reduce melatonin. Melatonin is not just critical to maintaining our sleep rhythm but it is also an extremely important antioxidant that helps to repair damaged DNA and reduces the growth of cancer cells. Additionally, research shows thyroid hormone levels can be impacted by wireless radiation. It has been established that even a small change in thyroid hormones can alter the brain.
Mina D et al,.(2016) Immune responses of a wall lizard to whole-body exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 2016 Mar;92(3):162-8. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2016.1135262. Epub 2016 Feb 6.
- Purpose During the last three decades, the number of devices that emit non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at the wireless communication spectrum has rapidly increased and possible effects on living organisms have become a major concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of radiofrequency EMR emitted by a widely used wireless communication device, namely the Digital Enhanced Communication Telephony (DECT) base, on the immune responses of the Aegean wall lizard (Podarcis erhardii).
- Materials and methods Adult male lizards were exposed 24 h/day for 8 weeks to 1880-1900 MHz DECT base radiation at average electric field intensity of 3.2 V/m. Immune reactivity was assessed using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin swelling and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) tests. Results Our results revealed a noticeable suppression (approximately 45%) of inflammatory responses in EMR-exposed lizards compared to sham-exposed animals. T cell-mediated responses were marginally affected.
- Conclusion Daily radiofrequency EMR exposure seems to affect, at least partially, the immunocompetence of the Aegean wall lizard.
Kesari KK, Kumar S, Behari J. (2011). 900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(4), 219-234.
- Significant decrease in the enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and an increase in catalase enzyme activity. Protein kinase C enzyme activity was significantly decreased in the samples of the exposed group (hippocampus and whole brain).
- A significant decrease in the level of pineal melatonin and a significant increase in creatine kinase and caspase 3 enzyme activities was observed in the exposed group (whole brain).
- A significant increase in the level of reactive oxygen species was also recorded.
Kesari KK, Kumar S, Behari J. (2012). Pathophysiology of microwave radiation: effect on rat brain. Appl Biochem Biotechnol . Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 166(2), 379-88.
- A significant decrease in the level of pineal melatonin of the exposed group.
- A significant increase in creatine kinase, caspase 3, and calcium ion concentration was observed in whole brain of exposed group of animals.
- The study concludes that a reduction in melatonin or an increase in caspase-3, creatine kinase, and calcium ion may cause significant damage in brain due to chronic exposure of these radiations. These biomarkers clearly indicate possible health implications of such exposures.
Koyu A, Cesur G, Ozguner F, Akdogan M, Mollaoglu H, Ozen S.(2005). Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic field on TSH and thyroid hormones in rats. Toxicology Letters.157(3), 257-262.
- TSH values and T3-T4 at the 900 MHz EMF group were significantly lower.
- These results indicate that 900 MHz EMF emitted by cellular telephones decrease serum TSH and T3-T4 levels.
Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J.(2011). The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field onthe reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 66(7), 1237-45.
- Significant increases in caspase and creatine kinase.
- Significant decreases in testosterone and melatonin in the exposed groups.
- This finding emphasizes that reactive oxygen species (a potential inducer of cancer) are the primary cause of DNA damage. However, pulsed electromagnetic field exposure relieves the effect of microwave exposure by inducing Faraday currents.
Mortavazi S, Habib A, Ganj-Karami A, Samimi-Doost R, Pour-Abedi A, Babaie A. (2009). Alterations in TSH and Thyroid Hormones following Mobile Phone Use. Oman Med J. 24(4), 274–278.
- A higher than normal TSH level, low mean T4 and normal T3 concentrations were found in mobile users.
- “It may be concluded that possible deleterious effects of mobile microwaves on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis affects the levels of these hormones.”
Hancı H, Türedi S, Topal Z, Mercantepe T, Bozkurt I, Kaya H, Ersöz Ş, Ünal B, Odacı E. Can prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field affect the morphology of the spleen and thymus, and alter biomarkers of oxidative damage in 21-day-old male rats? Biotech Histochem. 2015 May 19:1-9.
- The effects of a 900 Megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF), applied during the prenatal period, on the spleen and thymus of 21-day-old male rat pups.
- Compared to the control group, thymus tissue malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in the group exposed to EMF, while glutathione levels were significantly decreased. Increased malondialdehyde and glutathione levels were observed in splenic tissue of rats exposed to EMF, while a significant decrease occurred in superoxide dismutase values compared to controls. Transmission electron microscopy showed pathological changes in cell morphology in the thymic and splenic tissues of newborn rats exposed to EMF.
- Exposure to 900 MHz EMF during the prenatal period can cause pathological and biochemical changes that may compromise the development of the male rat thymus and spleen.
Disruptions to Heart Functioning
Research shows increases in heart rate, arrhythmias, dizziness, changes in blood pressure, and other disturbances in the heart’s cardiovascular functioning after exposure to wireless radiation. Several studies reported changes in EEG after prolonged repeated exposure to radiofrequency radiation. In some of these studies, relatively low power densities were used.
Hinrikus, Hiie, et al. “Mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect on nervous system.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 36, no. 2, 2016, pp. 202-12.
- The aim of this study is to explain the mechanism of the effect of low-level modulated microwave radiation on brain bioelectrical oscillations. The experiments to detect logical outcome of the mechanism on physiological level were carried out on 15 human volunteers. The 450-MHz microwave radiation modulated at 7, 40 and 1000 Hz frequencies was applied at the field power density of 0.16 mW/cm2.
- Experimental data demonstrated that modulated at 40 Hz microwave radiation enhanced EEG power in EEG alpha and beta frequency bands. No significant alterations were detected at 7 and 1000 Hz modulation frequencies.
Saili et al. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45 GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 40(2):600-605. September 2015,
- Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45 GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits.
- Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50 ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control.
- These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system.
Alhusseiny A, Al-Nimer M, Majeed A. Electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phone alters electrocardiographic records of patients with ischemic heart disease. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2(2):146-151, 2012.
- This study aimed to investigate the effect of radiofrequency of mobile phone on the electrocardiographic parameters in patients with history of ischemic heart disease, taking into consideration the gender factor.
- Electrocardiogram was obtained from each patient when the mobile phone was placed at the belt level and over precordium in turn-off mode (baseline) and turn-on mode for 40 sec ringing.
- The position of mobile at the belt level or over the precordium showed effects on the heart. The radiofrequency of cell phone prolongs the QT interval in human beings and it interferes with voltage criteria of ECG records in male patients with myocardial ischemia.
Esmekaya MA, Ozer C, Seyhan N. (2011). 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress on heart, lung, testis and liver tissues. Gen Physiol Biophys. 30(1), 84-9.
- MDA and NOx levels were increased significantly in liver, lung, testis and heart tissues of the exposed group compared to sham and control groups .(p < 0.05).
- Results of our study showed that pulse-modulated RF radiation causes oxidative injury in liver, lung, testis and heart tissues mediated by lipid peroxidation, increased level of NOx and suppression of antioxidant defense mechanism.
Havas M, Marrongelle J. (2010). Provocation study using heart rate variability shows microwave radiation from 2.4 GHz cordless phone affects autonomic nervous system. European Journal of Oncology. 5, 273-300.
- 10 of the subjects (40 percent) displayed increased heart rate, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats, a.k.a. heart palpitations).
- Four subjects experienced overt tachycardia, or intense and prolonged heart racing, after a second or two of exposure, with one subject’s heart almost tripling its rate.
- Strong increases in sympathetic nervous activity and decreases in parasympathetic activity from exposures.
Havas M, Marrongelle J. (2013). Replication of heart rate variability provocation study with 2.4-GHz cordless phone confirms original findings, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 32(2), 253-266.
- Double blind, sham-controlled study documented an increased Heart Rate, altered HRV and changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic control of the Autonomic Nervous System.
- “Our results demonstrate that the radiation from a 2.4-GHz cordless phone affects the ANS and may put some individuals with preexisting heart conditions at risk when exposed to electromagnetic frequencies to which they are sensitive.”
Türedi S, Hancı H, Topal Z, Unal D, Mercantepe T, Bozkurt I, Kaya H, Odacı E. (2014) The effects of prenatal exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old male rat heart. Electromagn Biol Med. Aug 28:1-8.
- This study investigated the effects on rat pup heart tissue of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF. Pregnant rats were divided into experimental (00 MHz EMF (1 h/d) on days 13-21 of pregnancy) and control groups. On postnatal day 21, heart tissues were extracted.
- Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase values were significantly higher in the experimental group rats, while glutathione values were lower. Light microscopy revealed irregularities in heart muscle fibers and apoptotic changes in the experimental group. Electron microscopy revealed crista loss and swelling in the mitochondria, degeneration in myofibrils and structural impairments in Z bands.
- Our study results suggest that exposure to EMF in the prenatal period causes oxidative stress and histopathological changes in male rat pup heart tissue.
Saini, Barjinder Singh; Pandey, Anukul, Effect of Wireless Network Radiation on Heart Rate Variability, International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering4.1
- The results indicate that there is a significant increase in DFA scaling exponent when the WNR level changed from minimum to maximum value, as p-value <0.05, whereas the change in mean value of ApEn was not significant due to higher standard deviation among all the subjects. The WNR exposure caused changes in HRV indices and it varied with WNR level, but all the changes cannot be considered as p values were higher.
Andrzejak R, Poreba R, Poreba M, Derkacz A, Skalik R, Gac P, Beck B, Steinmetz-Beck A, Pilecki W. The influence of the call with a mobile phone on heart rate variability parameters in healthy volunteers. Ind Health. 46(4):409-417, 2008.
Cherry, Neil. “Cardiac Effects of Natural and Artificial EMR.” 2002.
- It has been shown that external ELF fields cause altered calcium-concentrations in neurons and heart cells. Altered blood pressure is associated with the Schumann Resonance signal, along with its modulation of human heart disease and mortality rates in a homeostatic manner.
- Electrical and electronic workers, radio/TV workers are shown to have increased risks of heart disease and mortality. We all live in electromagnetic fields which act to contribute to increase the rate of cardiac disease and death.
- A new high risk factor is the usage of a cellphone. Cellphones have been shown to interfere with electronic pacemakers. Therefore it is very reasonable that they will interfere with biological pacemakers, that is, our hearts. The use of a cellphone is associated with significant increase of blood pressure. This is a symptom of hypertension and shows that there is a cardiac risk factor.
- This risk factor is strongly confirmed in the context of the Schumann Resonance signal effects, electrical workers effects and altered cardiac functions in radio, TV and radar exposed workers.
Dumansky, J.D. and Shandala, M.G., The biologic action and hygienic significance of electromagnetic fields of super high and ultra high frequencies in densely populated areas, in: “Biologic Effects and Health Hazard of Microwave Radiation: Proceedings of an International Symposium,” P. Czerski, et al., eds., Polish Medical Publishers, Warsaw, 1974.
Shandala, M.G., Dumanski, U.D., Rudnev, M.I., Ershova, L.K. and Los, I.P., Study of nonionizing microwave radiation effects upon the central nervous system and behavior reaction. Environ Health Perspect 30:115-121, 1979.
Takashima, S., Onaral, B. and Schwan, H.P., Effects of modulated RF energy on the EEG of mammalian brain. Rad Environ Biophys 16:15-27, 1979.
A Synergistic Effect between Electromagnetic Fields and Toxic Exposures
Research shows that exposure to electromagnetic fields could potentially increase the effects from other exposures. For example, a recent study showed a significant dose-response relationship between the number and duration of voice calls made on cell phones and ADHD risk among children exposed to lead in their environment.
Soffritti, Morando, et al. “Synergism between sinusoidal-50 Hz magnetic field and formaldehyde in triggering carcinogenic effects in male Sprague–Dawley rats.” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 59, no. 7, 2016, pp. 509-21.
- Objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential synergistic carcinogenic effects of concurrent exposure to ELFMF and formaldehyde in four groups of male and female Sprague–Dawley rats.
- Compared to untreated controls, exposure to MF and formaldehyde causes in males a statistically significant increased incidence of malignant tumors (P 0.01), thyroid C-cell carcinomas (P 0.01), and hemolymphoreticular neoplasias (P 0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed among female groups.
- Researchers conclude that life-span exposure to MF and formaldehyde induces statistically significant carcinogenic effects in male rats.
Soffritti, Morando, et al. “Life-span exposure to sinusoidal-50 Hz magnetic field and acute low-dose γ radiation induce carcinogenic effects in Sprague-Dawley rats.” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 92, no. 4, 2016, pp. 202-14.
- This study examined the carcinogenic effects of combined exposure to sinusoidal-50 Hz (S-50Hz) magnetic fields and acute gamma radiation in Sprague-Dawley rats.
- Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from prenatal life until natural death to 20 or 1000 lT S-50Hz MF and also to 0.1 gamma radiation delivered as a single acute exposure at 6 weeks of age.
- The results of the study showed significant carcinogenic effects for the mammary gland in males and females and a significant increased incidence of malignant schwannomas of the heart as well as increased incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in males, leading researchers to call for a re-evaluation of the safety of non-ionizing radiation.
Nittby, Henriettta, et al. “Radiofrequency and Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Blood-Brain Barrier.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 27, no. 2, 2008, pp. 103-126.
- The mammalian brain is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which prevents harmful substances from reaching the brain tissue. There is evidence that exposure to electromagnetic fields at non thermal levels disrupts this barrier. This review presented the scientific findings within this field.
- The result is a complex picture, where some studies show effects on the blood-brain barrier, whereas others do not. Possible mechanisms for the interactions between electromagnetic fields and the living organisms are discussed. Demonstrated effects on the blood-brain barrier, as well as a series of other effects upon biology, have caused societal anxiety. Continued research is needed to come to an understanding of how these possible effects can be neutralized, or at least reduced.
Nittby, Henrietta, et al. “Increased blood–brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.” Pathophysiology, vol. 16, no. 2-3, 2009, pp. 103-12.
- Researchers investigated the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood–brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2 h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2 h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0 mW/kg, 0.12 mW/kg, 1.2 mW/kg, 12 mW/kg and 120 mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed.
- Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (rs = 0.33; p = 0.04).
Eberhardt, Jacob L., et al. “Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability and Nerve Cell Damage in Rat Brain 14 and 28 Days After Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 27, no. 3, 2008, pp. 215-29.
- Researchers investigated the effects of global system for mobile communication (GSM) microwave exposure on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and signs of neuronal damage in rats using a real GSM programmable mobile phone in the 900 MHz band.
- Ninety-six non-anaesthetized rats were either exposed to microwaves or sham exposed in TEM-cells for 2 h at specific absorption rates of average whole-body Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) of 0.12, 1.2, 12, or 120 mW/kg.
- Albumin extravazation and also its uptake into neurons was seen to be enhanced after 14 d (Kruskal Wallis test: p = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively), but not after a 28 d recovery period. The occurrence of dark neurons in the rat brains, on the other hand, was enhanced later, after 28 d (p = 0.02). Furthermore, in the 28-d brain samples, neuronal albumin uptake was significantly correlated to occurrence of damaged neurons (Spearman r = 0.41; p < 0.01).
Persson, Bertil R.R., et al. “Increased Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier Induced by Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields.” Biological Effects and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy, vol. 649, 1992, pp. 356-8.
- Researchers first studied the permeability of the blood-brain barrier within male and female rats after exposure to the components of the MRI electromagnetic fields: static magnetic fields (SMF), low frequency pulsed magnetic fields (TVMF), radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF), and a combination of these three types of fields.
- The most significant effect was found after exposure to RF electromagnetic fields and to the combined NMR sequence. The effect was found for continuous radiation, but was even more pronounced for pulsed radio-frequency radiation at 8-215 Hz.
Tang, J., et al. “Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats.” Brain Research, vol. 1601, 2015, pp. 92-101.
- In this study, scientists confirmed the findings of Leif Salford and colleagues showing that exposure of rats to cell phone radiation causes leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Tang et al. also pointed out that activation of stress response pathway is involved in the effects, concluding, “Taken together, these results demonstrated that exposure to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 28 days can significantly impair spatial memory and damage BBB permeability in rat by activating the mkp-1/ERK pathway.”
Leszczynski, D., et al. “Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects.” Differentiation, vol. 70, no. 2-3, 2002, pp. 120-9.
- Researchers examined whether non-thermal exposures of cultures of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone microwave radiation could activate stress response.
- Results obtained demonstrate that 1-hour non-thermal exposure of EA.hy926 cells changes the phosphorylation status of numerous, yet largely unidentified, proteins. Mobile phone exposure caused a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, an effect which was prevented by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Also, mobile phone exposure caused transient changes in the protein expression levels of hsp27 and p38MAPK.
- Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers.
- We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects.
Byun, Yoon-Hwan, et al. “Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study.” PLOSONE, vol. 8, no. 3, 2013.
- Researchers found that children exposed to lead who made more voice calls on their cell phone were at significantly greater risk of developing ADHD symptoms. Moreover, a significant dose-response relationship was observed between the number and duration of voice calls made on cell phones and ADHD risk among children exposed to lead in their environment. The study authors explored the research showing blood-brain barrier permeability as a possible reason and state that:
- “Our results suggest that exposure to RF associates with increased ADHD symptom risk with simultaneous exposure to lead, and that RF exposure alone may have a weak or no effect on ADHD symptoms, i.e., a combined or cooperative toxic action of RF and lead on the developing brain. Future studies are needed to confirm this hypothetical mechanism.”
Kostoff, Ronald N. and Clifford G.Y. Lau. “Combined biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields and other agents in the published literature.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 80, no. 7, 2013, pp. 1331-1349.
- The present study examines the scope of the combined effects; i.e., it identifies effects on biological systems from combined exposure to electromagnetic fields/radiation and at least one other agent. Only articles in which the presence of EMF had some effect (beneficial or adverse) on the biological system were selected.
- There is a wide range of potential effects in which EMF plays a supportive role. Beneficial effects include improved treatment of chronic diseases like cancer by enhancing ionizing radiation or chemotherapy, and accelerated healing of wounds and injuries in concert with other agents. Adverse effects, on the other hand, include enhanced carcinogenesis, cellular or genetic mutations, and teratogenicity.
- The number of potential environmental agent combinations is large, and each combination could potentially have beneficial or adverse effects; much work remains to be done before definitive statements about EMF safety can be made.
Byun Y-H, Ha M, Kwon H-J, Hong Y-C, Leem J-H. (2013). Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study. PLoS ONE. 8(3)
Kostoff and Lau., (2013) Combined biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields and other agents in the published literature, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 80, Issue 7, September 2013, Pages 1331–1349
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields FromWireless Communicationupon the Blood-Brain Barrier, A review of published research, Bioinitiative 2012
Reviews of the Research
There have been many notable research reviews published that cover various research topics in electromagnetic fields.
Balmori, Alfonso. “Anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as an emerging threat to wildlife orientation.” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 518-519, 2015, pp. 58-60.
- The rate of scientific activity regarding the effects of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation in the radiofrequency (RF) range on animals and plants has been small despite the fact that this topic is relevant to the fields of experimental biology, ecology and conservation due to its remarkable expansion over the past 20 years.
- Current evidence indicates that exposure at levels that are found in the environment (in urban areas and near base stations) may particularly alter the receptor organs to orient in the magnetic field of the earth. These results could have important implications for migratory birds and insects, especially in urban areas, but could also apply to birds and insects in natural and protected areas where there are powerful base station emitters of radiofrequencies. Therefore, more research on the effects of electromagnetic radiation in nature is needed to investigate this emerging threat.
Volkow, Nora D., et al. “Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure of Brain Glucose Metabolism.” JAMA, vol. 305, no. 8, 2011, pp. 808-13.
- The objective of this study was to evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity.
- Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes (“on” condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated (“off” condition).
- In healthy participants and compared with no exposure, 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna.
Panagopoulos, Dimitris J., Olle Johansson, and George L. Carlo. “Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity.” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, no. 12914, 2015.
- In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR).
- All types of man-made EMFs/EMR – in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR – are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance.
- Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.
Yakymenko, Igor, et al. “Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine vol. 35, no. 2, 2016, pp. 186-202.
- “This review aims to cover experimental data on oxidative effects of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in living cells. Analysis of the currently available peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals molecular effects induced by low-intensity RFR in living cells; this includes significant activation of key pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of peroxidation, oxidative damage of DNA and changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It indicates that among 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, in general, 93 confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems. A wide pathogenic potential of the induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling pathways explains a range of biological/health effects of lowintensity RFR, which include both cancer and non-cancer pathologies.
- “In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that low-intensity RFR is an expressive oxidative agent for living cells with a high pathogenic potential and that the oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation.”
Prasad M., et al. “Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes.” Neurological Sciences, 2017, pp. 1-14.
- “This paper aims to investigate whether methodological quality of studies and source of funding can explain the variation in results.
- PubMed and Cochrane CENTRAL searches were conducted from 1966 to December 2016, which was supplemented with relevant articles identified in the references. Twenty-two case control studies were included for systematic review.
- Meta-analysis of 14 case–control studies showed practically no increase in risk of brain tumour [OR 1.03 (95% CI 0.92–1.14)]. However, for mobile phone use of 10 years or longer (or >1640 h), the overall result of the meta-analysis showed a significant 1.33 times increase in risk.
- The summary estimate of government funded as well as phone industry funded studies showed 1.07 times increase in odds which was not significant, while mixed funded studies did not show any increase in risk of brain tumour. Meta-regression analysis indicated that the association was significantly associated with methodological study quality (p < 0.019, 95% CI 0.009–0.09).
- Relationship between source of funding and log OR for each study was not statistically significant (p < 0.32, 95% CI 0.036–0.010). We found evidence linking mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours especially in long-term users (≥10 years). Studies with higher quality showed a trend towards high risk of brain tumour, while lower quality showed a trend towards lower risk/protection.
Carpenter DO. (2013). Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Rev Environ Health. 28(4), 159-72.
- This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities.
In summary, current extensive evidence shows that exposure to excessive levels of ELF and RF EMFs results in elevated rates of cancer and some other diseases, and such evidence is rapidly growing.
Cucurachi S, Tamis WL, Vijver MG, Peijnenburg WJ, Bolte JF, de Snoo GR. (2013). A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Environ Int. 51, 116-40.
- A systematic review of published scientific studies.
- In about two third of the reviewed studies ecological effects of RF-EMF was reported at high as well as at low dosages.
- “We propose in future studies to conduct more repetitions of observations and explicitly use the available standards for reporting RF-EMF relevant physical parameters in both laboratory and field studies.”
Davis DL, Kesari S, Soskolne CL, Miller AB, Stein Y. Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen.Pathophysiology. 2013 Apr;20(2):123-9
- Recent analyses not considered in the IARC review find that brain tumor risk is significantly elevated for those who have used mobile phones for at least a decade. Studies carried out in Sweden indicate that those who begin using either cordless or mobile phones regularly before age 20 have greater than a fourfold increased risk of ipsilateral glioma.
- High resolution computerized models based on human imaging data suggest that children are indeed more susceptible to the effects of EMF exposure at microwave frequencies. If the increased brain cancer risk found in young users in these recent studies does apply at the global level, the gap between supply and demand for oncology services will continue to widen.
- Brain cancer is the proverbial “tip of the iceberg”; the rest of the body is also showing effects other than cancers.
Martin Pall. (2013). Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects, Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine.17(8), 958-65.
- This paper reviews 24 different studies in which EMF exposures produce biological effects that can be blocked by using calcium channel blockers, drugs that block the action of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs).
- EMF exposures act by partially depolarizing the electrical charge across the plasma membrane of cells, activating the VGCCs and it is the increased intracellular calcium levels that are responsible for the reaction to EMF exposure.
- This review explains a mechanism for non-thermal biological effects from EMFs whereby voltage-gated calcium channels are opened up in the cell membrane, allowing calcium to leak into the cells.
Herbert MR, Sage C., Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II. Pathophysiology. 2013 Jun;20(3):211-34. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2013.08.002. Epub 2013 Oct 8.Select item 240950038.
- Autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are defined behaviorally, but they also involve multileveled disturbances of underlying biology that find striking parallels in the physiological impacts of electromagnetic frequency and radiofrequency radiation exposures (EMF/RFR). Part I (Vol 776) of this paper reviewed the critical contributions pathophysiology may make to the etiology, pathogenesis and ongoing generation of behaviors currently defined as being core features of ASCs. We reviewed pathophysiological damage to core cellular processes that are associated both with ASCs and with biological effects of EMF/RFR exposures that contribute to chronically disrupted homeostasis. Many studies of people with ASCs have identified oxidative stress and evidence of free radical damage, cellular stress proteins, and deficiencies of antioxidants such as glutathione. Elevated intracellular calcium in ASCs may be due to genetics or may be downstream of inflammation or environmental exposures. Cell membrane lipids may be peroxidized, mitochondria may be dysfunctional, and various kinds of immune system disturbances are common. Brain oxidative stress and inflammation as well as measures consistent with blood-brain barrier and brain perfusion compromise have been documented. Part II of this paper documents how behaviors in ASCs may emerge from alterations of electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization, how EMF/RFR could contribute to these by de-tuning the organism, and policy implications of these vulnerabilities. It details evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, immune system dysregulation, neuroinflammation and brain blood flow alterations, altered electrophysiology, disruption of electromagnetic signaling, synchrony, and sensory processing, de-tuning of the brain and organism, with autistic behaviors as emergent properties emanating from this pathophysiology. Changes in brain and autonomic nervous system electrophysiological function and sensory processing predominate, seizures are common, and sleep disruption is close to universal. All of these phenomena also occur with EMF/RFR exposure that can add to system overload (‘allostatic load’) in ASCs by increasing risk, and can worsen challenging biological problems and symptoms; conversely, reducing exposure might ameliorate symptoms of ASCs by reducing obstruction of physiological repair. Various vital but vulnerable mechanisms such as calcium channels may be disrupted by environmental agents, various genes associated with autism or the interaction of both. With dramatic increases in reported ASCs that are coincident in time with the deployment of wireless technologies, we need aggressive investigation of potential ASC-EMF/RFR links. The evidence is sufficient to warrant new public exposure standards benchmarked to low-intensity (non-thermal) exposure levels now known to be biologically disruptive, and strong, interim precautionary practices are advocated.
Herbert MR, Sage C., Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link – Part I. Pathophysiology. 2013 Jun;20(3):191-209. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2013.08.001. Epub 2013 Oct 4.
- Although autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are defined behaviorally, they also involve multileveled disturbances of underlying biology that find striking parallels in the physiological impacts of electromagnetic frequency and radiofrequency exposures (EMF/RFR). Part I of this paper will review the critical contributions pathophysiology may make to the etiology, pathogenesis and ongoing generation of core features of ASCs. We will review pathophysiological damage to core cellular processes that are associated both with ASCs and with biological effects of EMF/RFR exposures that contribute to chronically disrupted homeostasis. Many studies of people with ASCs have identified oxidative stress and evidence of free radical damage, cellular stress proteins, and deficiencies of antioxidants such as glutathione. Elevated intracellular calcium in ASCs may be due to genetics or may be downstream of inflammation or environmental exposures. Cell membrane lipids may be peroxidized, mitochondria may be dysfunctional, and various kinds of immune system disturbances are common. Brain oxidative stress and inflammation as well as measures consistent with blood-brain barrier and brain perfusion compromise have been documented. Part II of this paper will review how behaviors in ASCs may emerge from alterations of electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization, how EMF/RFR could contribute to these by de-tuning the organism, and policy implications of these vulnerabilities. Changes in brain and autonomic nervous system electrophysiological function and sensory processing predominate, seizures are common, and sleep disruption is close to universal. All of these phenomena also occur with EMF/RFR exposure that can add to system overload (‘allostatic load’) in ASCs by increasing risk, and worsening challenging biological problems and symptoms; conversely, reducing exposure might ameliorate symptoms of ASCs by reducing obstruction of physiological repair. Various vital but vulnerable mechanisms such as calcium channels may be disrupted by environmental agents, various genes associated with autism or the interaction of both. With dramatic increases in reported ASCs that are coincident in time with the deployment of wireless technologies, we need aggressive investigation of potential ASC – EMF/RFR links. The evidence is sufficient to warrant new public exposure standards benchmarked to low-intensity (non-thermal) exposure levels now known to be biologically disruptive, and strong, interim precautionary practices are advocated.
Redmayne M. International policy and advisory response regarding children’s exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Electromagn Biol Med. 2015 Jun 19:1-9.
- Over twenty countries and municipalities have issued policy or advisories on reducing exposure to electromagnetic fields.
- “There are a wide variety of approaches which I have categorized and tabulated ranging from ICNIRP/IEEE guidelines and “no extra precautions needed” to precautionary or scientific much lower maxima and extensive advice to minimize RF-EMF exposure, ban advertising/sale to children, and add exposure information to packaging. Precautionary standards use what I term an exclusion principle. The wide range of policy approaches can be confusing for parents/carers of children. Some consensus among advisory organizations would be helpful acknowledging that, despite extensive research, the highly complex nature of both RF-EMF and the human body, and frequent technological updates, means simple assurance of long-term safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs’ exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children.”
Markov M, Grigoriev YG.(2013). Wi-Fi technology – an uncontrolled global experiment on the health of mankind. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 32(2), 200-8
- “For the first time in the history of mankind, because of aggressive use of mobile phones children are exposed to harmful non ionizing radiation and potentially are subject of larger risk than adults. Even if the dose received by the children’s brain is the same as for adults, due to the specificity of the body size and physiological development, children are in greater danger.”
- We should stop telling the science, politicians and general population that Wi-Fi is harmless… We should better be honest and say that “we do not know what long-term effects might be.”
- “the continuous non-controlled exposure of the entire civilization to low-intensity EMFs represents now more serious problem for the mankind than ionizing radiation where the sources of radiation are under strict control and are well localized”
Panagopoulos D, Johansson O, Carlo G. (2013). Analysing the Health Impacts of Modern Telecommunications Microwaves. PLoS One. 8(6).
- “In the present study we showed that microwave radiations used in modern mobile telecommunications can damage DNA and induce cell death or heritable mutations which may in turn result in reproduction decreases, degenerative diseases, or cancer. We analyzed the biophysical and biochemical mechanism underlying this biological impact, and discussed dosimetry and protection issues.
- All healthy organisms have defense mechanisms in order to repair biological damages. But defense mechanisms are weaker in children and old individuals, and become also weaker during sickness or during stress conditions. Although even the most serious biological effects may not necessarily lead to health effects in an exposed individual, all health effects are initiated by corresponding biological ones. Thereby, biological effects-especially the most serious ones as is DNA damage or cell death induction-may potentially lead to health effects.
- Children are exposed to various kind of non-ionizan radiation in their daily life involuntarily. The potential sensitivity of developing organism to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) signals, the higher estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) values of children and greater lifetime cumulative risk raised the scientific interest for children’s vulnerability to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In modern societies, children are being exposed to EMFs in very early ages. There are many researches in scientific literature investigating the alterations of biological parameters in living organisms after EMFs. Although the international guidelines did not report definite, convincing data about the causality, there are unignorable amount of studies indicating the increased risk of cancer, hematologic effects and cognitive impairment. Although they are less in amount; growing number of studies reveal the impacts on metabolism and endocrine function. Reproductive system and growth look like the most challenging fields. However there are also some concerns on detrimental effects of EMFs on thyroid functions, adrenal hormones, glucose homeostasis and melatonin levels. It is not easy to conduct a study investigating the effects of EMFs on a fetus or child due to ethical issues. Hence, the studies are usually performed on virtual models or animals. Although the results are conflicting and cannot be totally matched with humans; there is growing evidence to distress us about the threats of EMF on children.
The ICEMS’ Monograph, “Non-Thermal Effects and Mechanisms of Interaction Between Electromagnetic Fields and Living Matter”, edited by Livio Giuliani and Morando Soffritti for the “European Journal of Oncology” – Library Vol. 5 of the National Institute for the Study and Control of Cancer and Environmental Diseases “Bernardo Ramazzini”, Bologna, Italy, 2010, Part I and Part II. To purchase the paper edition of the monograph, send a request to: Mattioli1885, publisher, Fidenza (I), www.mattioli1885.com.
Blank M, Goodman R.(2009). Electromagnetic fields stress living cells. Pathophysiology. 16(2-3), 71-8.
- “Electromagnetic fields (EMF), in both ELF (extremely low frequency) and radio frequency (RF) ranges, activate the cellular stress response, a protective mechanism that induces the expression of stress response genes, e.g., HSP70, and increased levels of stress proteins, e.g., hsp70.
- While low energy EMF interacts with DNA to induce the stress response, increasing EMF energy in the RF range can lead to breaks in DNA strands. It is clear that in order to protect living cells, EMF safety limits must be changed from the current thermal standard, based on energy, to one based on biological responses that occur long before the threshold for thermal changes”.
This is just a small sampling of the research. Want to Read It All?
The Bioinitiative 2012 Report has an invaluable sets of abstracts (data-based to be searchable) covering the RFR scientific literature, as well as collections of scientific abstracts on free radical damage (from both RFR and ELF) and a set specific to electrosensitivity. They cover the research published between 1990-2014. Please see these summaries at the Bioinitiative 2012 site here.
The number of mobile phones, laptop computers, and other devices emitting radio frequency radiation to which we are exposed on a daily basis is enormous. WiFi and cell phones are ubiquitous. Current research indicates that children and the fetus are most at risk from exposures to electromagnetic fields. Their systems are still developing so even small insults can result in large impacts later in life. Equally important, their smaller stature, thinner skulls and unique body makeup result in radiofrequency radiation penetrating their brains and bodies more deeply in proportion to adults. Children have more active stem cells which are shown to be more impacted by microwave radiation. Current government safety standards do not adequately account for these differences.
“Sound Exposure and Risk Assessment of Wireless Network Devices.” European Commission, 2012.
- “The primary objectives of SEAWIND were to close the knowledge gaps regarding the sequelae of exposure to wireless network devices. First, we analyzed exposure signals of the wireless network devices and identified the most relevant technologies with respect to exposure, which is currently dominated by the systems (GSM, UMTS, LTE, and WiFi) integrated in smart phones and tablet computers; wireless metropolitan area networks (WiMAX) and body area networks (BAN) are not being exploited as heavily as expected.”
- “One of the main results is the estimations of the mean and the range of the exposures from the various wireless network devices and the comparison to the exposures from other wireless technologies. The highest exposures found were due to the use of a mobile phone as a wireless access point with the phone in contact with the body In this configuration, the maximum exposure may even exceed safety limits by a factor of two or more, depending on the phone 3 model
- “The estimated mean exposure at the highest data rate is also higher than that of the phone used in talk mode. Therefore, the most effective way for people to reduce exposure is to keep the phone, while tethering, at least 50 mm away from the body (e.g., in a bag) or, even better, more than 200 mm away (e.g., on the table).”
- “The screening we performed on selected signals did not reproduce previous findings of DNA damage induction by wEMF exposure but provide convincing arguments for the absence a direct DNA damaging potential of such exposure.”
Bakker, J. F., et al. “Assessment of Induced SAR in children Exposed to Electromagnetic Plane Waves Between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz.” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 55, no. 11, 2010, pp. 3115-30.
- The objective of this study was to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels.
- Researchers found that the basic restriction on the SARwb is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR10g values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.
Ferreira, Juliana Borges, and Álvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles. “Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Tablet users.” 7th Latin American Workshop On Communications, 2015.
- “In this paper, the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of tablet user’s is simulated for three different head models and compared with available international recommendations. The models used are the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) and two realistic models of human head (a 34 years old adult and a 6 years old child).”
- “All the results are below the safety recommendations set up by the International Commission Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Federal Communications Committee (FCC). Among the heterogeneous models, the highest peak spatial Specific Absorption Rate (psSAR) values are estimated for the children. For 1 g psSAR the child heterogeneous model shows highest value in comparison to the SAM model.”
Findlay, R. P., and P. J. Dimbylow. “SAR in a child voxel phantom from exposure to wireless computer networks (Wi-Fi).” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 55, no. 15, 2010, pp. N405-11.
- “Specific energy absorption rate (SAR) values have been calculated in a 10 year old sitting voxel model from exposure to electromagnetic fields at 2.4 and 5 GHz, frequencies commonly used by Wi-Fi devices. Both planewave exposure of the model and irradiation from antennas in the near field were investigated for a variety of exposure conditions.”
- In all situations studied, the SAR values calculated were considerably below basic restrictions. For a typical Wi-Fi exposure scenario using an inverted F antenna operating at 100 mW, a duty factor of 0.1 and an antenna-body separation of 34 cm, the maximum peak localized SAR was found to be 3.99 mW kg−1 in the torso region. At 2.4 GHz, using a power of 100 mW and a duty factor of 1, the highest localized SAR value in the head was calculated as 5.7 mW kg−1 . This represents less than 1% of the SAR previously calculated in the head for a typical mobile phone exposure condition.
Gultekin, David H., and Lothar Moeller. “NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 110, no. 1, 2013, pp. 58-63.
- This study described a method for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. The proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues.
- Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry.
Morris, Robert D., Lloyd L. Morgan, and Devra L. Davis. “Children Absorb Higher Doses of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Mobile Phones Than Adults.” IEEE Access, vol. 3, 2015, pp. 2379-87.
- Foster and Chou (2014) reviewed published studies that used computer models of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to estimate and compare the tissue dose rate in the heads of children and adults using mobile phones. Their review confuses exposure with absorption, and the study results conclude erroneously that children are not more exposed than adults.
- This study shows that the Foster and Chou review was not executed systematically. There are discrepancies between text summaries and the graphed ratios of child: adult peak special specific absorption rate, in line with the author’s hypothesis that children have the same or lower tissue dose than adults. Even the underlying precept of their review is flawed, as the results of deterministic models are treated as random variables.
- This paper discusses the differences between exposure and tissue absorption and re-examines the results presented by Foster and Chou. Based upon this review, the authors suggest an alternative interpretation of the published literature.
Verloock, Leen, et al. “Assessment of Radio Frequency Exposures in Schools, Homes, and Public Places in Belgium.” Health Physics, vol. 107, no. 6, 2014, pp. 503-13.
- Within this study, exposure to RF electromagnetic fields (EMF) was assessed in three “sensitive” microenvironments namely, schools, homes, and public places located in urban environments and compared to exposure in offices.
- In-situ assessment was conducted by performing spatial broadband and accurate narrowband measurements, providing 6-minutes averaged electric-field strengths. A distinction between internal (transmitters that are located indoors) and external sources (outdoor sources from broadcasting and telecommunication) was made.
- 94% of the broadband measurements were below 1 V/m. The average and maximal total electric-field values in schools, homes, and public places, were 0.2 and 3.2 V/m (WiFi), 0.1 and 1.1 V/m (telecommunication), and 0.6 and 2.4 V/m (telecommunication), respectively, while for offices, average and maximal exposure was 0.9 and 3.3 V/m (telecommunication), satisfying the ICNIRP reference levels.
- In the considered schools, the highest maximal and average field values were due to internal signals (WiFi). In the considered homes, public places, and offices, the highest maximal and average field values originated from telecommunication signals.
Peyman, A., S. Holden, and C. Gabriel. “Dielectric Properties of Tissues at Microwave Frequencies.” Mobile Telecommunications and Health Research Programme, 2009.
- This project consolidated and added to the knowledge of tissue dielectric data by providing a literature review of all relevant papers published in the past decade, and obtaining, analysing and making available extensive, novel, experimental data acquired from measurement on live animals and on tissue excised from animals at various stages of growth and development.
- The results of hte age study showed that while the dielectric properties of grey matter does not change with age, other tissues such as white matter and spinal cord vary significantly. Specifically, study results found that the dielectric parameters (permittivity and equivalent conductivity) in children’s brains are greater (around 10 to 20% higher) in comparison to those in the adults brains, and therefore greater SAR is estimated in the children’s brains.
- The outcome of this study increased understanding of the variation of dielectric properties with age and motivated research on aqueous ionic solutions that proved to be of academic as well as practical interest.
Gandhi, O.P., G. Lazzi, and C. M. Furse. “Electromagnetic absorption in the human head and neck for mobile telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz.” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 44, no. 10, 1996, pp. 1884 – 97.
- Authors used the finite-difference time-domain method and a new millimeter-resolution anatomically based model of the human to study electromagnetic energy coupled to the head due to mobile telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz.
- Assuming reduced dimensions characteristic of today’s mobile telephones, the authors have obtained SAR distributions for two different lengths of monopole antennas of lengths /spl lambda//4 and 3/spl lambda//8 for a model of the adult male and reduced-scale models of 10- and 5-year-old children and find that peak one-voxel and 1-g SARs are larger for the smaller models of children, particularly at 835 MHz. Homogeneous models(instead of anatomically realistic heterogeneous models) on the SAR distributions are shown to grossly overestimate both the peak 1-voxel and 1-g SARs.
- The authors showed that 5-year-old and 10-year-old children have higher psSARs (peak spatial specific absorption rate) than adults.
Wiart, J., et al. “Analysis of RF Exposure in the Head Tissues of Children and Adults.” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 53, no. 13, 2008.
- “This paper analyzes the radio frequencies (RF) exposure in the head tissues of children using a cellular handset or RF sources (a dipole and a generic handset) at 900, 1800, 2100 and 2400 MHz.”
- “The maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) over 10 g in the head was analyzed in seven child and six adult heterogeneous head models. The simulations performed show that the differences between the maximum SAR over 10 g estimated in the head models of the adults and the ones of the children are small compared to the standard deviations. But they indicate that the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues of the child models aged between 5 and 8 years is about two times higher than in adult models. This difference is not observed for the child models of children above 8 years old: the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues is about the same as the one in adult models. Such differences can be explained by the lower thicknesses of pinna, skin and skull of the younger child models.”
De Salles, A. A., Bulla, G., Rodriguez, C. E. (2006). “Electromagnetic absorption in the head of adults and children due to mobile phone operation close to the head.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 349–360.
- The authors simulated the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) produced by mobile phones in the head of adults and children using an algorithm based on the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, using realistic models of the child and adult head.
- The frequencies used to feed the antennas were 1850 MHz and 850 MHz and the SAR results were compared with the available international recommendations.
- Researchers show that under similar conditions, the 1g-SAR calculated for children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10-year old child model, SAR values higher than 60% than those for adults are obtained.
Peyman, A., et al. “Variation of the dielectric properties of tissues with age: the effect on the values of SAR in children when exposed to walkie–talkie devices.” Physics in Biology and Medicine, vol. 54, no. 2, 2009, pp. 227–41.
- In vitro dielectric properties of ageing porcine tissues were measured in the frequency range of 50 MHz-20 GHz, and the total combined uncertainties of the measurements were assessed.
- The results show statistically significant reduction with age in both permittivity and conductivity of 10 out of 15 measured tissues. At microwave frequencies, the observed variations are mainly due to the reduction in the water content of tissues as an animal ages.
Ferreira, Juliana Borges and Alvaro Augusto Almeida de Salles. “Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the Head of Tablet User’s.” 7th Latin American Workshop on Communications, 2015.
- Researchers simulated the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of tablet users for three different head models and compared with available international recommendations. The models used were the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) and two realistic models of human head (a 34 years old adult and a 6 years old child). The simulations were performed using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and the frequency used to feed the antenna was 2.45 GHz.
- All the results are below the safety recommendations set up by the International Commission Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Federal Communications Committee (FCC). Among the heterogeneous models, the highest peak spatial Specific Absorption Rate (psSAR) values were estimated for the children. For 1 g psSAR the child heterogeneous model shows highest value in comparison to the SAM model.
- “It is very important to remark that the recommendations and the standards usually adopted in different countries only consider the health effects of short time of exposure. Adults, adolescents and children may use these devices for many hours a day, many days a week and many weeks each year. Then these exposures should be reduced in order to reduce the health risks and the standards should be revised again since the last review was many years ago.”
Ferreira, Juliana Borges, Almeida de Salles, Alvaro Augusto, and Claudio Enrique Fernandez-Rodriguez. “SAR simulations of EMF exposure due to tablet operation close to the user’s body.” Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference, 2015.
- This paper describes an analysis of the interaction between the electromagnetic field generated by a tablet with three different models of human heads: a homogeneous model Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM) and two heterogeneous models: an adult man and a child. The assessing dosimetric parameters used are the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) computed by SEMCAD X. The distance between the tablet and the head models varies from 50 mm to 200 mm. The SAR decreases with the distance.
- The authors conclude in their paper that, “These devices may be used for many hours each day by adults, adolescents and children, several days a week, and many months each year. Therefore, special precautionary procedures should be taken in order to avoid health risks due to long periods of exposure.”
Pizzaro, Y.A.A., et al. “Specific absorption rate (SAR) in the head of Google glasses and Bluetooth user’s.” IEEE Latin-America Conference on Communications, 2014.
- Authors considered and simulated the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for two popular wireless communication devices – Bluetooth and Google glasses – using three different head models (SAM phantom, 34 year old adults, and 10 year old child). The resulting SAR was then compared with international recommendations.
- The simulations were performed using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and the frequency used to feed the antennas was 2.45 GHz.The resulting SAR was then compared with international recommendations.
Cabot, E. et al. “Quantification of RF-exposure of the fetus using anatomical CAD-models in three different gestational stages.” Health Physics, vol. 107, no. 5, 2014, pp. 369-81.
- “This study analyzes the exposure of pregnant women and their fetuses in three different gestational stages to electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency range in the near- and the far-field using numerical modeling.”
- When applying the reference levels for the general public, researchers found that the fetus is sufficiently shielded by the mother. However, the basic restrictions for general public exposure can be exceeded in the fetus when the mother is exposed at reference levels for occupational conditions.
- For plane wave exposure at occupational levels, the whole body SAR in the fetus can exceed the basic restrictions for the general population by at least 1.8 dB, and in the near-field of professional devices, the 10 g SAR can be non-compliant with the product standard for the general public by > 3.5 dB.
Panagopoulos, Dimitris J., Olle Johansson, and George L. Carlo. “Real versus simulated mobile phone exposures in experimental studies.” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, no. 607053, 2015.
- This study examined whether exposures to mobile phone radiation in biological/clinical experiments should be performed with real-life Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) emitted by commercially available mobile phone handsets, instead of simulated EMFs emitted by generators or test phones.
- Real mobile phone emissions are constantly and unpredictably varying and thus are very different from simulated emissions which employ fixed parameters and no variability. This variability is an important parameter that makes real emissions more bioactive. Living organisms seem to have decreased defense against environmental stressors of high variability.
- While experimental studies employing simulated EMF-emissions present a strong inconsistency among their results with less than 50% of them reporting effects, studies employing real mobile phone exposures demonstrate an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects. This consistency is in agreement with studies showing association with brain tumors, symptoms of unwellness, and declines in animal populations.
- We conclude that, in order for experimental findings to reflect reality, it is crucially important that exposures be performed by commercially available mobile phone handsets.
Fernandez-Rodriguez, C.E.; De Salles, A.A.A.; Davis, D.L., “Dosimetric Simulations of Brain Absorption of Mobile Phone Radiation–The Relationship Between psSAR and Age,” in Access, IEEE , vol.3, no., pp.2425-2430, 2015 doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2502900
- A young child’s skull is not only smaller and thinner than an adult’s, but also has dielectric characteristics closer to those of soft tissues, probably due to a higher water content. The young skull better matches the electromagnetic characteristics of the skin and brain. As a result, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations confirm field penetration and higher specific absorption rate (SAR) in deeper structures in the young brain.
- If the peak spatial SAR (psSAR) is modeled in the entire head, as current testing standards recommend, the results for adults and children are equivalent.
- Our anatomically based evaluations rely on FDTD simulations of different tissues within the brain and confirm that the psSAR in a child’s brain is higher than in an adult’s brain.
Gandhi OP, Morgan LL, De Salles AA, Han YY, Herberman RB, Davis DL. (2012). Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagn Biol Med. 31(1), 3451.
- The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the “guidelines” of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency.
- Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child’s head’s absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull’s bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. T
- herefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.
Markovà E, Malmgren L, Belyaev I, (2010). Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk, Environ Health Perspect. 118(3), 394–399.
- “The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals.”
Redmayne M, Johansson O. Radiofrequency exposure in young and old: different sensitivities in light of age-relevant natural differences. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Dec 1;30(4):323-35. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0030.
- First, we identified the literature which has explored age-specific pathophysiological impacts of RF-EMR. Natural life-span changes relevant to these different impacts provides context for our review of the selected literature, followed by discussion of health and well-being implications.
- We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an aging population means there are economic implications for public health and policy.
Gandhi, Om. Yes the Children are more exposed to radio-frequency energy from mobile telephones than adults. IEEE Spectrum. PP(99):1. Jun 23, 2015.
- In this paper we present arguments based on Physics that the main reason for higher exposure of children (also women and men with smaller heads and likely thinner pinnae) to radiofrequency energy from mobile phones is the closer placement of the cell phone radiation source by several millimeters to the tissues of the head, e.g. the brain. Using heterogeneous anatomically-derived shaped models of the head, we have previously reported that the exposure increases by a compounding rate of 10-15% for every single millimeter of closer location of the radiating antenna.
Christ A, Gosselin MC, Christopoulou M, Kühn S, Kuster N. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users. Phys Med Biol. 55(7):1767-1783, 2010.
- The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no agedependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.
- The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.
Liorni I, Parazzini M, Fiocchi S, Douglas M, Capstick M, Kuster N, Ravazzani P. COMPUTATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF PREGNANT WOMAN MODELS EXPOSED TO UNIFORM ELF-MAGNETIC FIELDS: COMPLIANCE WITH THE EUROPEAN CURRENT EXPOSURE REGULATIONS FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES AT 50 Hz. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015 Nov 30.
- Only a few studies have been devoted to the investigation of the compliance in pregnant women(17–20) Therefore, until now, there have been no studies in literature that assess the compliance of pregnant women exposed to MF at 50 Hz with both the European Recommendation 1999(2) and the Directive 2013(3
- This study aimed to assess the compliance of pregnant women to the current regulations, when exposed to uniform MF at 50 Hz (100 μT for EU Recommendation and 1 and 6 mT for EU Directive). For general public, exposure of pregnant women and fetus always resulted in compliance with EU Recommendation. For occupational exposures, (1) Electric fields in pregnant women were in compliance with the Directive, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of <10 %, (2) electric fields in fetuses are lower than the occupational limits, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of >40 % in head tissues, (3) Electric fields in fetal CNS tissues of head are above the ICNIRP 2010 limits for general public at 1 mT (in 7 and 9 months gestational age) and at 6 mT (in all gestational ages).
- “In this case, for all the exposure scenarios at 9 months of GA, the Jpeak was always found to be higher than the limit of the Recommendation (Figure 2) in some tissues, which do not belong to the CNS tissues of head and trunk (Table 5), where the stimulation due to ELF-MF exposure could occur.”
“The comparison of the fetal-induced electric fields to the basic restriction of the ICNIRP Guidelines 2010(1) for the general public shows that E99th values in the fetal CNS tissues of the head were higher than the limits and therefore not intrinsically compliant with these safety recommendation at 1 mT in 7 and 9 months of GA and at 6 mT in all GAs (Figure 7).”
Bellieni et. al., Exposure to electromagnetic fields from laptop use of “laptop” computers. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2012;67(1):31-6. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2011.564232.
- The authors measured electromagnetic fields (EMFs) laptop computers produce and estimated the induced currents in the body, to assess the safety of laptop computers. When close to the body, the laptop induces currents that are within 34.2% to 49.8% ICNIRP recommendations, but not negligible, to the adult’s body and to the fetus (in pregnant women). On the contrary, the power supply induces strong intracorporal electric current densities in the fetus and in the adult subject, which are respectively 182-263% and 71-483% higher than ICNIRP 98 basic restriction recommended to prevent adverse health effects.
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