Research on Wireless Health Effects
Cell phones and wireless expose people to a type of microwave radiation also known as radiofrequency radiation or RF-EMF. Peer reviewed research has demonstrated a myriad of adverse biological effects from wireless radiation including reproductive dysfunction, single- and double-stranded DNA breaks, creation of reactive oxygen species, immune dysfunction, stress protein synthesis in the brain, altered brain development, sleep and memory disturbances, and increased brain tumors.
These effects have occurred at wireless radiation exposure levels hundreds of times lower than presently legal international limits. These effects have occurred after exposure to devices that are government approved and legally sold to the public.
Scientific data on the biological effects of radiofrequency indicate the immediate need for a precautionary approach to protect the public. Conclusive proof is not necessary. The research has accumulated enough to provide strong evidence that low levels are not safe.
Fertility and Reproduction
Consistent evidence from experimental research, epidemiological studies, in vitro (cells) laboratory studies, and in vivo (animal) studies shows that RF exposure is associated with reduced sperm count, motility and concentration, as well as DNA damage and altered cell structure. Research also shows damage after wireless exposure to the ovaries of rats and mice, as well as changes in the eggs of flies and birds.
Reviews on Reproductive Effects
Houston B, Nixon B, King BV, De Iuliis G, Aitken RJ. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. Reproduction. 2016 Sep 6. pii: REP-16-0126.
- Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in 21. Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species documented elevated levels and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage, due to RF-EMR exposure. Associated with this, RF-EMR treatment reduced antioxidant levels in 6 of 6 studies that studied this phenomenon, while consequences of RF-EMR were successfully ameliorated with the supplementation of antioxidants in all 3 studies that carried out these experiments.
- We propose a mechanistic model in which RF-EMR exposure leads to defective mitochondrial function associated with elevated levels of ROS production and culminates in a state of oxidative stress that would account the varying phenotypes observed in response to RF-EMR exposure.
Akdag MZ, Dasdag S, Canturk F, Karabulut D, Caner Y, Adalier N. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats? J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Jan 8. pii: S0891-0618(16)00005-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2016.01.003.
- The purpose of this study is to reveal whether long term exposure of 2.4GHz frequency RF radiation will cause DNA damage of different tissues such as brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissue and testicular tissues of rats.
- The present study shows that as prolonged exposure to RF radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices causes DNA damage, a low intensity RF radiation could affect male fertility. Further longitudinal studies with oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage markers are needed to determine whether DNA damage in reproduction cells that indicates infertility is formed due to oxidative stress caused by prolonged exposure to Wi-Fi usage.
Conclusion: As a result, it is observed that the long-term exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency radiation caused an increase in the DNA damage of the brain, liver, kidney, and skin tissue of rats, but this increase was not significant. Therefore it is determined that the long-term exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency radiation does not cause the DNA damage of the brain, liver, kidney, and skin tissue of the rats. However it is concluded that the long-term usage of 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency wireless internet providers could cause a potential risk of DNA damage in the testes.
Adams J, Galloway T , Mondal D, Esteves S, Mathews F. (2014). Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environment International. 80, 106-112.
- Our analyses indicate negative associations between mobile phone exposure on sperm viability and motility. The effects on concentration are more equivocal. Further research is required to quantify these effects more precisely and to evaluate the clinical importance of the risk to both sub-fertile men and the general population.
- “A critical review of the literature pertaining to the impact of cell phone RF-EMR on reproduction in male and female animals and humans was performed, with a focus on gonad metabolism, apoptosis of reproductive cells, fertility status, and serum reproductive hormones.”
- “While some animal and human studies revealed alterations in reproductive physiology in both males and females, others did not report any association. The in vitro and in vivo studies to date are highly diverse, very inconsistent in conduct and, in many cases, report different primary outcomes.
- Conclusion: The increasing use of cell phone warrants well-designed studies to ascertain the effect of their RF-EMR on reproduction.”
- See their Figure 1 Showing Potential effects of cell phone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on male and female reproduction in animals and humans
La Vignera S, Condorelli R, Vicari E, D’Agata R, Calogero A. (2012) Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature. Journal of Andrology. 33(3), 350-356.
- Review of Research: “The results showed that human spermatozoa exposed to RF-EMR have decreased motility, morphometric abnormalities, and increased oxidative stress, whereas men using mobile phones have decreased sperm concentration, decreased motility (particularly rapid progressive motility), normal morphology, and decreased viability. These abnormalities seem to be directly related to the duration of mobile phone use.”
Myung Chan Gye and Chan Jin Park, Review: Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system, Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2012 Mar; 39(1): 1–9.
- “To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success. At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca2+]i may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding, and DNA breaks. The effect of EMF exposure on reproductive function differs according to frequency and wave, strength (energy), and duration of exposure. In the present review, the effects of EMFs on reproductive function are summarized according to the types of EMF, wave type, strength, and duration of exposure at cellular and organism levels.”
- “Conclusions and perspectives: Through in vitro and in vivo studies, EMF exposure was found to alter the reproductive endocrine hormones, gonadal function, embryonic development, pregnancy, and fetal development (Table 1, Figure 2). These effects were different according to the frequency, duration of exposure, and strength of EMFs. Humans in modern society cannot avoid various kinds of EMFs during household and occupational activities, but should be aware of the biological hazard of EMFs. The effort to avoid EMF exposure and techniques to protect or relieve EMF radiation are required to preserve our reproductive potential.”
Odacı E, Hancı H, Yuluğ E, Türedi S, Aliyazıcıoğlu Y, Kaya H, Çolakoğlu S. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality. Biotech Histochem. 2015 Oct 15:1-11.
- Pregnant rats were divided into control (CG; no treatment) and EMF (EMFG) groups. The EMFG was exposed to 900 MHz EMF for 1 h each day during days 13 – 21 of pregnancy. Newborn rats were either newborn CG (NCG) or newborn EMF groups (NEMFG). On postnatal day 60, a testis and epididymis were removed from each animal. Epididymal semen quality, and lipid and DNA oxidation levels, apoptotic index and histopathological damage to the testis were compared.
- Our findings implicate exposure to 900 MHz EMF for 1 h each day between days 13 and 21 of pregnancy in the development of postnatal alterations in male reproductive structure and function, and associated biochemical markers. These alterations include increased plasma DNA oxidation, decreased sperm motility and vitality, alterations of the normal morphological structure of the testis and epididymis sperm quality at postnatal day 60. We conclude that that 900 MHz EMF exposure during the prenatal period exerts a detrimental effect on testes and epididymis development in rats, and that detrimental effects persist up to 60 days postnatally.
Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K, Varghese A, Mouradi R, Sabanegh E, Sharma R. (2009). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RFEMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study, Fertil Steril. (4), 1318-25.Research Studies on Reproduction
- “Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility.”
Atasoy HI, Gunal MY, Atasoy P, Elgun S, Bugdayci G. (2013). Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices. Journal of Pediatric Urology. 9(2), 223-9.
- Significant increases in serum 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels and 8-hydroxyguanosine staining in the testes of the experimental group indicating DNA damage due to exposure (p < 0.05).
Avendaño C, Mata A, Sanchez Sarmiento CA, Doncel GF.(2012). Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertility Sterility. 97(1), 39-45.
- Ex vivo exposure of human spermatozoa to a wireless internet-connected laptop decreased motility and induced DNA fragmentation by a nonthermal effect.
Azadi Oskouyi E, Rajaei F, Safari Variani A, Sarokhani MR, Javadi A. (2014). Effects of microwaves (950 MHZ mobile phone) on morphometric and apoptotic changes of rabbit epididymis. Andrologia.
- The epithelial height and diameter of the epididymis in 3 watt and 6 watt groups ( 2 weeks, 2 h a day with a frequency of 950 MHZ) had a significant decrease, the testosterone level only in 6 watt group was significantly decreased. The rate of apoptosis in the epithelial cells of the epididymis had a significant increase in 6 watt group.
- “This study showed that the microwaves with the frequency of 950 MHz can have negative impacts on morphometric and apoptotic changes of rabbit epididymis.’
Bakacak M, Bostancı MS, Attar R, Yıldırım ÖK, Yıldırım G, Bakacak Z, Sayar H, Han A. The effects of electromagnetic fields on the number of ovarian primordial follicles: An experimental study. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2015 Jun;31(6):287-92. doi: 10.1016/j.kjms.2015.03.004. Epub 2015 Apr 30.
- This study found a significant decrease in the number of ovarian follicles in rats exposed to an EMF. Further clinical studies are needed to reveal the effects of EMFs on ovarian reserve and infertility.
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electromagnetic field (EMF), generated close to the ovaries, on primordial follicles. A total of 16 rats were used in this study. The study group consisted of rats exposed to an EMF in the abdominal region for 15 min/d for 15 days.
DeIuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ.(2009). Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro. Plos One July 31, 4(7)
- In step with increasing SAR, motility and vitality were significantly reduced after RF-EMR exposure, while the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation were significantly elevated (P<0.001). Furthermore, we also observed highly significant relationships between SAR, the oxidative DNA damage bio-marker, 8-OH-dG, and DNA fragmentation after RF-EMR exposure.
- “These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring”.
Desai NR, Kesari KK, Agarwal A. (2009). Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 7, 114.
- “This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed.
- We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system).
- This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling”.
Ghanbari M, Mortazavi SB, Khavanin A, Khazaei M. (2013). The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats. International Journal of Fertility and Sterility 7(1), 21-8.
- Sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacity in all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05).
- Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significant decrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05).
- “CONCLUSION: Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility in rats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result in oxidative stress.”
Gul A, Celebi H, Uğraş S.(2009). The effects of microwave emitted by cellular phones on ovarian follicles in rats. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 280(5), 729-33.
- Exposure: 30 minutes every 24 hours pregnancy.
- “ decreased number of follicles in pups exposed to mobile phone microwaves suggest that intrauterine exposure has toxic effects on ovaries.”
- “microwaves of mobile phones might decrease the number of follicles in rats by several known and, no doubt, countless unknown mechanisms.”
Panagopoulos D. (2012). Effect of microwave exposure on the ovarian development of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Biochem Biophys. 63(2), 121-32.
- “the ovarian size of the exposed insects is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding sham-exposed insects, due to destruction of egg chambers by the GSM radiation, after DNA damage and consequent cell death induction in the egg chamber” cells of the virgin females as shown in previous experiments on inseminated females.
- “The difference in ovarian size between sham-exposed and exposed virgin female flies becomes most evident 39-45 h after eclosion when the first eggs within the ovaries are at the late vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages (mid-late oogenesis). More than 45 h after eclosion, the difference in ovarian size decreases, as the first mature eggs of the sham-exposed insects are leaving the ovaries and are laid.”
- Marko Markov and Yuri G. Grigoriev of the National Committee of Non-Ionizing
Shahin S, Mishra V, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM.(2014). 2.45 GHz Microwave Irradiation Adversely Affects Reproductive Function in Male Mouse, Mus musculus by Inducing Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress. Free Radic Res. 48(5), 511-25.
- Significant decrease in sperm count , sperm viability , decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter, degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels and increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed.
- These “adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to microwave radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway.”
Yüksel M, Nazıroğlu M, Özkaya MO. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring. Endocrine. 2015 Nov 14. [Epub ahead of print]
- We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring.
- In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring.
- Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices.
- Though our experiment was performed with a long duration of exposure, it cannot be ruled out that repetitive exposures for 2 years or more may have additional effects on rats and humans, especially on young teenagers who often use their mobile phones for several hours per day.
Increased Cancer Risk
The research evidence indicates that long term use of cell phones and wireless increase our cancer risk. All independent longitudinal research has consistently shown that long-term “heavy” cellphone users have an increased risk of brain cancer. (“Heavy” was defined as 30 minutes per day.) Such research lead to the World Health Organization’s International Agency for the Research on Cancer to classify this radiation as a Class 2 B Possible Human Carcinogen in 2011. Since 2011, the evidence has increased.
—Dr. Ronald B. Herberman
Dr. Hardell’s research showed that adults who started using cell or cordless phones as teenagers had an 8-fold higher risk of brain cancer on the side of their head where they held the phone. A French study also found increased brain cancer in long term cell phone users. To date, the only published study of children’s risk of brain cancer from cell phone use found more than a 2-fold risk after >2.8 years of use (from billing records), combined with a statistically significant trend of increasing risk with increasing years of use.
In 2015 Lerchl et al published an important replication study which confirms that wireless acts as a tumor promoter. In this important study, lymphomas and tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher. The wireless exposure was at low to moderate exposure levels well below exposure limits for the users of mobile phones.This research is significant in that it used a larger group of mice and replicated tumor-promoting effects shown in a 2010 study.
Turner et al. Investigation of bias related to differences between case and control interview dates in five INTERPHONE countries. Annals of Epidemiology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2016.09.013, Epub first Oct 8, 2016.
- Further analyses were conducted in a subset of five INTERPHONE study countries (Australia, Canada, France, Israel, New Zealand) using a post-hoc matching strategy to optimize proximity of case to control interview dates and age.
- Results Though results were generally similar to the original INTERPHONE study, there was some attenuation of the reduced odds ratios and stronger positive associations among long term users and those in the highest categories for cumulative call time and number of calls (8-9th and 10th decile).
- Conclusions Proximity and symmetry in timing of case to control interviews should be optimized when exposure patterns are changing rapidly with time.
Hardell L and Carlberg M (2009) Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours. Int J Oncol 35: 5-17,
- The Hardell-group conducted during 1997-2003 two case control studies on brain tumours including assessment of use of mobile phones and cordless phones.
- Regarding astrocytoma we found highest risk for ipsilateral mobile phone use in the >10 year latency group, OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.0-5.4 and for cordless phone use OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.3-11.
- In total, the risk was highest for cases with first use <20 years age, for mobile phone OR=5.2, 95% CI=2.2-12 and for cordless phone OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10.
- For acoustic neuroma, the highest OR was found for ipsilateral use and >10 year latency, for mobile phone OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.2 and cordless phone OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.6-8.8. Overall highest OR for mobile phone use was found in subjects with first use at age less than 20 years.
(2011). Non-ionizing radiation, Part II: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields / IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 102(2), 1-460.
- Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).” (p. 421)
- “Overall, the Working Group reviewed all the available evidence with regard to the use of wireless phones, including both mobile and cordless phones, and the risk of glioma. Time trends were considered, as were several early case–control studies and one cohort study. The evidence from these studies was considered less informative than the results of the INTERPHONE study and the Swedish case–control study. While both of these are susceptible to bias, the Working Group concluded that these findings could not be dismissed as reflecting bias alone, and that a causal interpretation was possible.”
- “In considering the evidence on acoustic neuroma, the Working Group considered the same methodological concerns as for glioma, but concluded that bias was not sufficient to explain the positive findings, particularly those of the study from Sweden.” (p. 412)
Coureau G, Bouvier G, Lebailly P, Fabbro-Peray P, Gruber A, Leffondre K, Guillamo JS, Loiseau H, Mathoulin-Pélissier S, Salamon R, Baldi I. (2014). Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study. Occup Environ Med. 71(7), 514-22.
- “CERENAT is a multicenter case-control study carried out in four areas in France in 2004–2006. No association with brain tumours was observed when comparing regular mobile phone users with non-users. However, the positive association was statistically significant in the heaviest users when considering life-long cumulative duration for meningiomas and number of calls for gliomas Risks were higher for gliomas, temporal tumours, occupational and urban mobile phone use.
- These additional data support previous findings concerning a possible association between heavy mobile phone use and brain tumours.”
Morgan LL, Miller AB, Sasco A, Davis DL, Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (review). Int J Oncol. 2015 May;46(5):1865-71. Epub 2015 Feb 25.
- The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use. I
- We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A ̔probable̓ human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). Additional data should be gathered on exposures to mobile and cordless phones, other WTDs, mobile phone base stations and Wi‑Fi routers to evaluate their impact on public health.
- We advise that the as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) principle be adopted for uses of this technology, while a major cross‑disciplinary effort is generated to train researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of potential health impacts of RF‑EMF.
Davis DL, Kesari S, Soskolne CL, Miller AB, Stein Y.(2013). Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen. Pathophysiology. 20(2), 123-9.
- “Given that treatment for a single case of brain cancer can cost between $100,000 for radiation therapy alone and up to $1 million depending on drug costs, resources to address this illness are already in short supply and not universally available in either developing or developed countries. Significant additional shortages in oncology services are expected at the current growth of cancer. No other environmental carcinogen has produced evidence of an increased risk in just one decade…If the increased brain cancer risk found in young users in these recent studies does apply at the global level, the gap between supply and demand for oncology services will continue to widen. Many nations, phone manufacturers, and expert groups, advise prevention in light of these concerns by taking the simple precaution of “distance” to minimize exposures to the brain and body. We note than brain cancer is the proverbial “tip of the iceberg”; the rest of the body is also showing effects other than cancers.”
Markovà E, Malmgren L, Belyaev I, (2010). Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk, Environ Health Perspect. 118(3), 394–399.
- “The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals.”
Carlberg M, Hardell L. Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(10):10790-10805.
- We analysed survival of 1678 glioma patients in our 1997–2003 and 2007–2009 case-control studies. Use of wireless phones in the >20 years latency group (time since first use) was correlated to decreased survival for those diagnosed with astrocytoma grade IV .
- “Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines.”
- Hardell, M. Carlberg, Cell and cordless phone risk for glioma – Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997-2003 and 2007-2009, Pathophysiology (2014), Available online 29 October 2014.
- “Conclusion. We previously analysed the evidence on glioma associated with the use of wireless phones using the Hill criteria . We concluded that glioma and also acoustic neuroma are caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones, and thus regarded as carcinogenic, under Group 1 according to the IARC classification, indicating that current guidelines for exposure should be urgently revised. This pooled analysis gives further support to that conclusion regarding glioma.”
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Mild K.(2013). Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use. International Journal of Oncology 43(6), 1833-45.
- For persons with more than 25 years latency period (time since first use until tumour diagnosis) a 3-fold increased risk was found. The risk increased further for tumours located in the most exposed area of the brain, the temporal lobe, to a 5-fold increased risk.
- “This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis”.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson, Mild K. (2006). Pooled analysis of two case-control studies on the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003. International Journal of Oncology. 509-18.
- In the multivariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of acoustic neuroma was found with the use of analogue phones.
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Mild KH.(2013). Pooled analysis of case-control studies on acoustic neuroma diagnosed 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 and use of mobile and cordless phones. Int J Oncol. 43(4), 1036-44.
- “Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral for both mobile and cordless phones. OR increased per 100 h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per 100 h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones. This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.”
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K. (2011). Pooled analysis of case-control studies on malignant brain tumours and the use of mobile and cordless phones including living and deceased subjects. Int J Oncol. 38(5):1465-74.
- An increased risk was found for glioma and use of mobile or cordless phone. The risk increased with latency time and cumulative use in hours and was highest in subjects with first use before the age of 20.
Hardell L, Carlberg M. (2013). Using the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones. Rev Environ Health. 28(2-3), 97-106.
- “All nine issues on causation according to Hill were evaluated. The criteria on strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, and biologic gradient for evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma were fulfilled.
- Based on the Hill criteria, glioma and acoustic neuroma should be considered to be caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones and regarded as carcinogenic to humans, classifying it as group 1 according to the IARC classification. Current guidelines for exposure need to be urgently revised.”
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K. (2013). Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. Pathophysiology. 20(2):85-110.
- “We give an overview of current epidemiological evidence for an increased risk for brain tumours including a meta-analysis of the Hardell group and Interphone results for mobile phone use. It is concluded that one should be careful using incidence data to dismiss results in analytical epidemiology. The IARC carcinogenic classification does not seem to have had any significant impact on governments’ perceptions of their responsibilities to protect public health from this widespread source of radiation”.
Lerchl et al., Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Available online 6 March 2015.
- A replication study. “Numbers of tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher than in sham-exposed controls. In addition, lymphomas were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure. A clear dose–response effect is absent. We hypothesize that these tumor-promoting effects may be caused by metabolic changes due to exposure. Since many of the tumor-promoting effects in our study were seen at low to moderate exposure levels (0.04 and 0.4 W/kg SAR), thus well below exposure limits for the users of mobile phones, further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our findings may help to understand the repeatedly reported increased incidences of brain tumors in heavy users of mobile phones.”
Carlberg M, Hardell L. Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(10):10790-10805.
- Survival was analyzed for 1678 glioma patients in Hardells1997–2003 and 2007–2009 case-control studies. “Elevated HR (decreased survival) for the most malignant glioma type, astrocytoma grade IV, was found for long-term use of mobile and cordless phones.Highest HR was found for cases with first use before the age of 20 years. These results indicate a survival disadvantage for use of wireless phones in that patient group”.
- “The study strengthens the proposed causal association between use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma. Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines”.
- Lloyd Morgan, Santosh Kesari, Devra Lee Davis. Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure DOI: 10.1016/j.jmau.2014.06.005. In press. Published online Jul 15, 2014.
- International Cancer registries are showing a rise in brain cancer. Children absorb more microwave radiation, a Class 2 B possible carcinogen than adults. The fetus is in greater danger than children from exposure to MWR. The legal exposure limits have remained unchanged for decades. Cellphone manuals warnings and the 20 cm rule for tablets/laptops violate the “normal operating position” regulation.
Myung S.K., Ju W, McDonnell D, Lee Y, Kazinets G, Cheng C, Moskowitz J.(2009). Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Tumors: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27(33), 556.
- A Meta-Analysis- “The current study found that there is possible evidence linking mobile phone use to an increased risk of tumors from a meta-analysis of low-biased case-control studies. Prospective cohort studies providing a higher level of evidence are needed”.
Havas, M. 2016. When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer? Environmental Pollution, 219: 000-000. Online release November 28, 2016.
Experimental research shows chronic exposure to wireless reduces brain cells and causes brain cell death in the memory and learning centers of the brain. Cell phone radiation has also been shown to alter brain activity in humans. In 2011, NIH research found just 50 minutes of a wireless transmitting device (cell phone) next to the brain increases glucose in the part of the brain most exposed. Preliminary 3G and 4G research has further shown that non-thermal levels of this radiation alter the brain’s electrical activity.
Dasdag et al., Effects Of 2.4 Ghz Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Equipment On microRna Expression In Brain Tissue. Int J Radiat Biol. 2015 Mar 16:1-26.
- The significant effects on microRNAs observed in this study were found from Wi-Fi exposure that was well below the legal limit. CONCLUSION: Long term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative brain diseases originated from the alteration of some miRNAs expression.
Bas O, Odaci E, Kaplan S, Acer N. (2009). 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects qualitative and quantitative features of hippocampal pyramidal cells in adult rat. Brain Research. 1265, 178–185.
- A statistically significant decrease in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus and an increase in dark cells.
Bas O, Odaci E, Mollaoglu H, Ucok K, Kaplan S. (2009). Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats. Toxicol Ind Health. 25, 377–384.
- Results: A significant reduction in the total number of pyramidal cells in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus, which involves short-term memory and learning.
- Sixteen-week old rats are comparable to the age of human teenagers.
Bin Lv, Zhiye Chen, Tongning Wu, Qing Shao, Duo Yan, Lin Ma, Ke Lu, Yi Xie. (2014). The alteration of spontaneous low frequency oscillations caused by acute electromagnetic fields exposure. Clin Neurophysiol. 125(2), 277-86.
- 30 min LTE 4G exposure modulated the spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in brain regions.
- Pregnant rats were exposed to different intensities of microwave radiation from cellular phones.
- Significant content differences were found in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA) after fetal brains were assayed.
- “Through this study, we concluded that receiving a certain period of microwave radiation from cellular phones during pregnancy has certain harm on fetal rat brains.”
Júnior LC, Guimarães ED, Musso CM, Stabler CT, Garcia RM, Mourão-Júnior CA, Andreazzi AE. (2014). Behavior and memory evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to 1·8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Neurol Res. 36(1).
- Frequency of rearing was increased by 193.3%, revealing an increase in exploratory activity of the animals, which is also related to anxiety, depression, and stressful behavior.
- Our data corroborate that reported by Narayanan et al., 21 who showed in 2012 that animals exposed to mobile phone radiation had an increased frequency of rearing.
Naziroğlu M. and Gumral. (2009). Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat. Int J Radiat Biol. 85(8), 680-689.
- Rats exposed to 2.45 GHz 60 min/day for 28 days had lower cortex brain vitamin A (p < 0.05), vitamin C (p < 0.01) and vitamin E (p < 0.05) concentrations.
- EMF radiation leads to increased permeability of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) at non-thermal exposure levels.
- Damaging effects from radiofrequency EMF upon neurons has been shown after 28 days and 50 days.
- “The human BBB is very similar to the rodent BBB… it is our sincere belief, that it is more probable than unlikely, that non-thermal EMF from mobile phones and base stations do have effects upon the human brain.
Odaci E, Bas O, Kaplan S. (2008). Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological and histopathological study. Brain Research. 1238, 224–229.
- Prenatal exposure caused a progressive postnatal decline in the number of granule cells of dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of offspring.
Qiao S, Peng R, Yan H, Gao Y, Wang C, et al. (2014) Reduction of Phosphorylated Synapsin I (Ser-553) Leads to Spatial Memory Impairment by Attenuating GABA Release after Microwave Exposure in Wistar Rats. PLoS ONE. 9(4)
- In the rat experiments, there was a decrease in spatial memory performance after microwave exposure. Both microwave exposure and p-Syn I silencing reduced GABA release and maximal reduction was found for the combination of the two, indicating a synergetic effect.
- p-Syn I (ser-553) was found to play a key role in the impaired GABA release and cognitive dysfunction that was induced by microwave exposure.
Razavinasab M, Moazzami K, Shabani M. (2014). Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring. Toxicol Ind Health. 30(2), 101-196.
- Mobile phone exposure was mostly associated with a decrease in the number of action potentials fired in spontaneous activity and in response to current injection in both male and female groups. There was an increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in mobile phone rats compared with the control.
- The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats.
- Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques.
Redmayne M, Johansson O. (2014) Could myelin damage from radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure help explain the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity? A review of the evidence. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev;17(5):247-58.
- “This review of RF-EMF peer-reviewed literature outlines the development of myelin through life, and then considers the evidence for an association between myelin integrity and exposure to low-intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) typical in the modern world.
- There are surprisingly little data available in each area, but considered together a picture begins to emerge in RF-EMF-exposed cases: (1) significant morphological lesions in the myelin sheath of rats; (2) a greater risk of multiple sclerosis in a study subgroup; (3) effects in proteins related to myelin production; and (4) physical symptoms in individuals with functional impairment electrohypersensitivity, many of which are the same as if myelin were affected by RF-EMF exposure, giving rise to symptoms of demyelination.In the latter, there are exceptions; headache is common only in electrohypersensitivity, while ataxia is typical of demyelination but infrequently found in the former group.
- Overall, evidence from in vivo and in vitro and epidemiological studies suggests an association between RF-EMF exposure and either myelin deterioration or a direct impact on neuronal conduction, which may account for many electrohypersensitivity symptoms. The most vulnerable are likely to be those in utero through to at least mid-teen years, as well as ill and elderly individuals.
Saikhedkar N, Bhatnagar M, Jain A, Sukhwal P, Sharma C, Jaiswal N. (2014). Effects of mobile phone radiation (900 MHz radiofrequency) on structure and functions of rat brain. Neurol Res. 2(6), 2499-2504.
- Thus our findings indicate extensive neurodegeneration on exposure to radio waves. Increased production of reactive oxygen species due to exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation are indicating extensive neurodegeneration in selective areas of CA1, CA3, DG, and cerebral cortex. This extensive neuronal damage results in alterations in behavior related to memory and learning.
- A significant increase in albumin was found in the brains of the RF-exposed male rats when compared to sham-exposed male brains.
- Radio frequency radiation “at levels below the international limits can affect the vascular permeability in the brain of male rats. The possible risk of RFR exposure in humans is a major concern for the society.”
Volkow ND, Tomasi D, Wang GJ, Vaska P, Fowler JS, Telang F, Alexoff D, Logan J, Wong C. (2011). Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. Journal of the American Medical Association, 305(8), 808-13.
- A 50-minute cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna.
Zarei et al,. A Challenging Issue in the Etiology of Speech Problems: The Effect of Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields on Speech Problems in the Offspring. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2015 Sep 1;5(3):151-4. eCollection 2015.
- RESULTS: We found a significant association between either the call time (P=0.002) or history of mobile phone use (months used) and speech problems in the offspring (P=0.003). However, other exposures had no effect on the occurrence of speech problems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a possible association between maternal exposure to electromagnetic field and speech problems in the offspring. Although a major limitation in our study is the relatively small sample size, this study indicates that the maternal exposure to common sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones can affect the occurrence of speech problems in the offspring.
Roggeveen S, van Os J, Viechtbauer W, Lousberg R (2015) EEG changes due to experimentally induced 3G mobile phone radiation. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6): e0129496.
- A15-minute placement of a 3G dialing mobile phone causes direct changes in EEG activity compared to the placement of a sham phone. Thirty-one healthy females participated. All subjects were measured twice: on one of the two days the mobile phone was attached to the ear, the other day to the chest. In this single-blind, cross-over design, assessments in the sham phone condition were conducted directly preceding and following the mobile phone exposure.
- Delta, theta, alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma activity was computed. The association between radiation exposure and the EEG was tested using multilevel random regression analyses with radiation as predictor of main interest. Significant radiation effects were found for the alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma bands. When analyzed separately, ear location of the phone was associated with significant results, while chest placement was not. The results support the notion that EEG alterations are associated with mobile phone usage and that the effect is dependent on site of placement. Further studies are required to demonstrate the physiological relevance of these findings.
Cognition and Impaired Memory
“We have shown that behavioral problems in mice that resemble ADHD are caused by cell phone exposure in the womb,” said Dr. Hugh Taylor of Yale Medical School. “The rise in behavioral disorders in human children may be in part due to fetal cellular telephone irradiation exposure.”
Yale University research found prenatally exposed pups had impaired memory, increased hyperactivity, and altered brains—consistent with a growing literature. Many studies have now demonstrated that wireless signals can damage cognitive abilities such as learning, memory, attention, and reaction times.
Aldad TS, Gan G, Gao XB, Taylor HS. (2012). Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 MHz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Scientific Reports; 2, 312.
- the exposed group had dose responsive impaired neurologic transmission in the prefrontal cortex.
- the mice exposed in utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory.
Deshmukh P.S. et al., 2015. Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation. Int J Toxicol. 34(3): 284-290.
- “The results showed declined cognitive function, elevated HSP70 level, and DNA damage in the brain of microwave-exposed animals. The results indicated that, chronic low-intensity microwave exposure in the frequency range of 900 to 2450 MHz may cause hazardous effects on the brain.”
Deshmukh PS, Banerjee BD, Abegaonkar MP, Megha K, Ahmed RS, Tripathi AK, Mediratta PK. (2013). Effect of low level microwave radiation exposure on cognitive function and oxidative stress in rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys; 50(2), 114-9.
- “Results showed significant impairment in cognitive function and increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increase in levels of MDA (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and protein carbonyl (a marker of protein oxidation) and unaltered GSH content.
- “Low level MW radiation had significant effect on cognitive function and was also capable of leading to oxidative stress.”
Megha, K Deshmukh, PS, Banerjee, BD, Tripathi, AK, Abegaonkar, MP. (2012). Microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and inflammation in brain of Fischer rats. Indian J Experimental Biology. 50(12), 889-896.
- “Significant impairment in cognitive function and induction of oxidative stress in brain tissues of microwave exposed rats were observed.”
- Increased oxidative stress due to microwave exposure may contribute to cognitive impairment and inflammation in brain.”
Nittby H, Grafström G, Tian DP, Malmgren L, Brun A. (2008). Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation. Bioelectromagnetics. 29, 219–232.
- GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02).
- “Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).”
Narayanan S.N. et al., 2015. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Metab Brain Dis. 30(5): 1193-1206.
- “Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats.” “RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial.” “RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region.” “Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.”
Narayanan SN, Kumar RS, Karun KM, Nayak SB, Bhat PG, Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Jun 3.
- The effects of chronic and repeated radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) exposure on spatial cognition and hippocampal architecture were investigated in prepubescent rats.
- Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats. Memory retention test performed 24 h after the last training revealed minor spatial memory deficit in RF-EMR exposed group. However, RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial. Hirano bodies and Granulovacuolar bodies were absent in the CA3 pyramidal neurons of different groups studied. Nevertheless, RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. RF-EMR exposure influenced dendritic arborization pattern of both apical and basal dendritic trees in RF-EMR exposed rats.
- Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition.
Papageorgiou C, Hountala CD, Maganioti AE, Kyprianou MA, Rabavilas AD, Papadimitriou GN, Capsalis CN. (2011). Effects of wi-fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience. 10(2), 189-202.
- A WiFi access point was 1.5 meters away during blind exposures.
- In conclusion, the present findings suggest that Wi-Fi exposure may exert gender-related alterations on neural activity associated with the amount of attentional resources engaged during a linguistic test adjusted to induce Working Memory.
Schoeni A, Roser K, Röösli M. Memory performance, wireless communication and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: A prospective cohort study in adolescents. Environ Int. 2015 Oct 13;85:343-351. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.025. [Epub ahead of print]
- BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate whether memory performance in adolescents is affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from wireless device use or by the wireless device use itself due to non-radiation related factors in that context.
- METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study with 439 adolescents. Data were analysed using a longitudinal approach.
- Since we found stronger associations between RF-EMF doses and figural memory but not verbal memory, one could speculate that this might be due to different brain areas involved in the verbal and figural memory tasks.
- CONCLUSIONS: A change in memory performance over one year was negatively associated with cumulative duration of wireless phone use and more strongly with RF-EMF dose. This may indicate that RF-EMF exposure affects memory performance.
Epidemiological studies have shown associations between exposures and behavioral issues in children (and experimental test subjects). For example, a recent study showed a significant dose-response relationship between the number and duration of voice calls made on cell phones and ADHD risk among children who were also exposed to lead in their environment. Exposure to cell phones prenatally and postnatally is associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems.
Aldad TS, Gan G, Gao XB, Taylor HS. (2012). Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice. Scientific Reports. 2, 312.
- Mice that were exposed to radiation tended to be more hyperactive and had reduced memory capacity.
- Authors attributed the behavioral changes to an effect during pregnancy on the development of neurons in the prefrontal cortex region of the brain.
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. (2012). Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. J Epidemiol Community Health. 66(6), 524-9.
- The findings of the previous publication were replicated in this separate group of participants demonstrating that cell phone use was associated with behavioural problems at age 7 years in children, and this association was not limited to early users of the technology.
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J. (2008). Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioral problems in children. Epidemiology. 19(4), 523-9.
- Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry.
Feizhou Zheng, Peng Gao, Mindi He, Min Li, Changxi Wang, Qichang Zeng, Zhou Zhou, Zhengping Yu, and Lei Zhang. Association between mobile phone use and inattention in 7102 Chinese adolescents: a population-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 2014, 14:1022 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1022
- A cross-sectional study with 7720 middle school students assessed for inattention and information on Mobile phone use.
- Results: Inattention in adolescents was significantly associated with mobile phone (MP) ownership, the time spent on entertainment on MP per day, the position of the MP during the day and the mode of the MP at night.
- The strongest association between inattention and the time spent on the MP was among students who spent more than 60 minutes per day playing on their MP.
Narayanan SN, Kumar RS, Kedage V, Nalini K, Nayak S, Bhat PG, (2014) Evaluation of oxidant stress and antioxidant defense in discrete brain regions of rats exposed to 900 MHz radiation. Bratislava Medical Journal; 115(5):260-6.
- Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) were allotted into control, sham and exposed groups. Exposed group was exposed to 900 MHz of RF-EMR (1 hr/day with peak power density of 146.60 µW/cm2) from an activated GSM mobile phone for four weeks. On 29th day, behavioral analysis was done and later biochemical parameters were studied in amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and cerebellum.
- Altered behavioral performances were found in RF-EMR-exposed rats. Additionally, elevated TBARS level was found with all brain regions studied. RF-EMR exposure significantly decreased TA in the amygdala and cerebellum but its level was not significantly changed in other brain regions. GST activity was significantly decreased in the hippocampus but, its activity was unaltered in other brain regions studied.
- Conclusion: “RF-EMR exposure for a month induced oxidative stress in rat brain, but its magnitude was different in different regions studied. RF-EMR-induced oxidative stress could be one of the underlying causes for the behavioral deficits seen in rats after RF-EMR exposure.”
Research in humans shows that chronic mobile phone usage results in high-frequency hearing loss and inner ear damage. Research has also shown a significant risk of tumors on the auditory nerve in the brain (acoustic neuromas). Experimental research with rodents shows signs of neuronal degeneration in the auditory system after exposure.
- A literature review: Results: EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity), and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus.
- Conclusion: There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus.
Dhiraj Maskey, Myeung Ju Kim. (2014). Immunohistochemical Localization of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Superior Olivary Complex of Mice after Radiofrequency Exposure. Neuroscience Letters. 564, 78-82
- Significant decrements of BDNF immunoreactivity were noted in the lateral superior olive, medial superior olive, superior paraolivary nucleus and medial nucleus of the trapezoid body
- The decrease in the immunoreactivity of neurotrophic factors suggests a detrimental effect of RF exposure in the auditory nuclei.
Oktay M, Dasdag S. (2006). Effects of intensive and moderate cellular phone use on hearing function. Electromagn Biol Med. 25(1), 13-21.
- Brainstem evoked response audiometric (BERA) and pure tone audiometric (PTA) methods were used to measure the effects of exposure on hearing function of the subjects.
- Detection thresholds in those who talked approximately 2 h per day were found to be higher than those in either moderate users or control subjects.
- This study shows that a higher degree of hearing loss is associated with long-term exposure to electromagnetic (EM) field generated by cellular phones.
Panda N, Munjal S, Bakshi J. (2007). Audiological Disturbances in Long-Term Mobile Phone Users. American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation.
- 100 people who had used mobile phones for over a year suffered increases in the degree of hearing loss over the span of 12 months.
- The study discovered that people who used their phones for more than 60 minutes a day had a worse hearing threshold than those with less use.
- The authors warn users of cell phones to look out for ear symptoms such as ear warmth, ear fullness, and ringing in the ears (tinnitus) as early warning signs that you may have an auditory abnormality. They also suggest the use of earphones, which they found to be safer than holding a mobile phone up to the ears.
Sudan M, Kheifets L, Arah OA, Olsen J. (2013). Cell phone exposures and hearing loss in children in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 27(3), 247- 57.
- We observed weak associations between cell phone use and hearing loss at age 7, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the traditional logistic regression, MSM and DRE models being 1.21 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99, 1.46], 1.23 [95% CI 1.01, 1.49] and 1.22 [95% CI 1.00, 1.49], respectively.
- CONCLUSIONS:Our findings could have been affected by various biases and are not sufficient to conclude that cell phone exposures have an effect on hearing. This is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to investigate this potentially important association among children, and replication of these findings is needed.
Velayutham P, Govindasamy GK, Raman R, Prepageran N, Ng KH. (2014). High-frequency hearing loss among mobile phone users. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 66(1), 169-72.
- Prospective single blinded study that used high-frequency audiometry.
- This study showed that there is significant loss in the dominant ear compared to the non-dominant ear (P < 0.05). Chronic usage mobile phone revealed high frequency hearing loss in the dominant ear (mobile phone used) compared to the non dominant ear.
Özgür A, Tümkaya L, Terzi S, Kalkan Y, Erdivanlı ÖÇ, Dursun E. Effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves on the auditory system. Acta Otolaryngol. 2015 Apr 2:1-6. [Epub ahead of print].
- Twelve adult Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups. The study group was exposed to the electromagnetic waves over a period of 30 days.
- The histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the exposed rats showed neuronal degeneration signs, such as increased vacuolization in the cochlear nucleus, pyknotic cell appearance, and edema.
- The results support that chronic electromagnetic field exposure may cause damage by leading to neuronal degeneration of the auditory system.
Seckin E, Suren Basar F, Atmaca S, Kaymaz FF, Suzer A, Akar A, Sunan E, Koyuncu M. The effect of radiofrequency radiation generated by a Global System for Mobile Communications source on cochlear development in a rat model. J Laryngol Otol. 2014 May 1:1-6.
- This study aimed to determine the effect of radiofrequency radiation generated by 900 and 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications sources on cochlear development in the rat model.
- Electron microscopic evaluation revealed significant differences among the groups with regard to the number of normal, apoptotic and necrotic cells. Conclusion: The findings indicated cellular structural damage in the cochlea caused by radiofrequency radiation exposure during cochlear development in the rat model.
Khullar S, Sood A, Sood S. Auditory Brainstem Responses and EMFs Generated by Mobile Phones. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Dec;65(Suppl 3):645-9. Epub 2013 Sep 7.
- “The aim of our study was to advance our understanding of the potential adverse effects of GSM mobile phones on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). 60 subjects were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 20 each based on their usage of mobile phones.”
- “Based on our findings we concluded that long term exposure to mobile phones may affect conduction in the peripheral portion of the auditory pathway. However more research needs to be done to study the long term effects of mobile phones particularly of newer technologies like smart phones and 3G.”
Research shows children who used cell phones or who were exposed prenatally to wireless radiation are at higher risk of developing headaches.
- “Exposure to cell phones prenatally-and, to a lesser degree, postnatally-was associated with behavioral difficulties such as emotional and hyperactivity problems around the age of school entry. These associations may be noncausal and may be due to unmeasured confounding. If real, they would be of public health concern given the widespread use of this technology.”
Küçer N, Pamukçu T. Self-reported symptoms associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields: a questionnaire study. Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Jan;33(1):15-7.
- “The study has shown that users of mobile phone and computer more often complained of headache, joint and bone pain, hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness, tension-anxiety symptoms according to time of daily usage (p < 0.05).”
Madhuri Sudan, Leeka Kheifets, Onyebuchi Arah, Jorn Olsen, Lonnie Zeltzer. (2012). Prenatal and Postnatal Cell Phone Exposures and Headaches in Children. Open Pediatrics Medical Journal. 46-52.
- Children with cell phone exposure had higher odds of migraines and headache-related symptoms than children with no exposure.
Szyjkowska A, Gadzicka E, Szymczak W, Bortkiewicz A. (2014). The risk of subjective symptoms in mobile phone users in Poland – An epidemiological study. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 27(2), 293-303.
- a questionnaire survey of 53 questions.
- Headaches were reported significantly more often by the people who talked frequently and long in comparison with other users
- Continuous headache, persisting for longer than 6 h since the end of a call, was reported by 26% of the subjects.
- Our results show that the mobile phone users may experience subjective symptoms, the intensity of which depends on the intensity of use of mobile phones.
Cho et. al., A cross-sectional study of the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of ill health. Environ Health Toxicol. 2016 Oct 26;31:e2016022.
- Mobile phone call duration was associated with the severity of headaches.
The radiation from wireless transmitting devices damages sleep. For example, this radiation has been shown to delay entrance into deep non-REM sleep and decrease time spent in this stage of sleep. The quantity and quality of sleep has a profound impact on learning and memory. A sleep-deprived person cannot focus or learn efficiently. Sleep also has a critical role in the consolidation of memory essential for learning new information.
Hillert L, Akerstedt T, Lowden A, Wiholm C, Kuster N, Ebert S, Boutry C, Moffat SD, Berg M, Arnetz BB. (2007). The Effects of 884 MHz GSM Wireless Communication Signals on Self-reported Symptom and Sleep (EEG)- An Experimental Provocation Study. Bioelectromagnetics. 3(7), 1148-1150.
- A prolonged latency to reach the first cycle of deep sleep (stage 3).
- The amount of stage 4 sleep was also decreased in exposed subjects.
- Subjects reported more headaches during exposures vs. sham exposure.
47. Mann and J. Röschke. (1996). “Effects of Pulsed High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Human Sleep,” Neuropsychobiology. 33, 41-47.
- Shortening of sleep onset latency and a REM (Rapid Eye Movement) suppressive effect with reduction of duration and percentage of REM sleep.
- “The effects observed possibly could be associated with alterations of memory and learning functions.”
Regel SJ1, Tinguely G, Schuderer J, Adam M, Kuster N, Landolt HP, Achermann P. (2007). Pulsed radio-frequency electromagnetic fields: dose-dependent effects on sleep, the sleep EEG and cognitive performance. Journal of Sleep Research. 16(3), 253-8.
- Showed a dose-response relationship between EMF field intensity and its effects on brain physiology as demonstrated by changes in the sleep EEG and in cognitive performance.
Schmid MR, Murbach M, Lustenberger C, Maire M, Kuster N, Achermann P, Loughran SP. (2012). Sleep EEG alterations: effects of different pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Sleep Research. 21(1), 50-8.
- “Consistent with previous findings, our results provide further evidence that pulse-modulated RF EMF alter brain physiology”.
- Modulation frequency components within a physiological range may be sufficient to induce these effects.
Oxidative stress is the formation of tissue-damaging free radicals. A recent research review shows 93 out of 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies indicate that radiofrequency radiation increases oxidative stress. This stress response damages cells and DNA through the production of peroxides and free radicals. Oxidative stress is implicated in the cause of many diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.
- The aim of the present study was to investigate oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney tissues of male Wistar rats that pre- and postnatally exposed to wireless electromagnetic field (EMF) with an internet frequency of 2.45 GHz for a long time.
- Tubular injury was detected in most of the specimens in post-natal groups. Immunohistochemical analysis showed low-intensity staining with Bax in cortex, high-intensity staining with Bcl-2 in cortical and medullar areas of pre-natal group (p values, 0.000, 0.002, 0.000, respectively) when compared with sham group. Bcl2/Bax staining intensity ratios of medullar and cortical area was higher in pre-natal group than sham group (p = 0.018, p = 0.011).
- Based on this study, it is thought that chronic pre- and post-natal period exposure to wireless internet frequency of EMF may cause chronic kidney damages; staying away from EMF source in especially pregnancy and early childhood period may reduce negative effects of exposure on kidney.
- Read the study here.
Igor Yakymenko, Olexandr Tsybulin, Evgeniy Sidorik, Diane Henshel, Olga Kyrylenko, and Sergiy Kyrylenko, Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. July 7, 2015.
- 93 out of 100 currently available peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of low-intensity RFR, confirmed that RFR induces oxidative effects in biological systems.
- A wide pathogenic potential of the induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling pathways explains a range of biological/health effects of lowintensity RFR, which include both cancer and non-cancer pathologies. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that low-intensity RFR is an expressive oxidative agent for living cells with a high pathogenic potential and that the oxidative stress induced by RFR exposure should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of the biological activity of this kind of radiation.
Boderaet al. Influence of electromagnetic field (1800 MHz) on lipid peroxidation in brain, blood, liver and kidney in rats. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2015;28(4):751-9. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00255
- Administration of tramadol together with the EMF exposure enhanced lipid peroxidation in kidneys, blood, and brain, both in healthy rats and those with inflammation, which was similar to the results of our previous study carried out by another method.
- It can be concluded that the increased risk of oxidative stress in various organs due to electromagnetic radiation should be taken into account. However, this risk burden is probably determined by the duration of exposure, SAR and also additional environmental factors.
- Open Access Paper: http://ijomeh.eu/pdf-2434-2887?filename=Influence%20of.pdf
Augner C, Hacker GW, Oberfeld G, Florian M, Hitzl W, Hutter J, Pauser G. (2010). Effects of exposure to GSM mobile phone base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and immunoglobulin A. Biomed Environ Sci. 23(3), 199-207.
- Increases of cortisol and a higher concentration of alpha-amylase were detected in subjects under various EMF exposure scenarios.
- RF-EMF in considerably lower field densities than ICNIRP-guidelines may influence certain psychobiological stress markers.
Cetin H, Nazıroğlu M, Celik O, Yüksel M, Pastacı N, Ozkaya MO. (2014). Liver antioxidant stores protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced oxidative stress in rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 27(6).
- “EMR-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver was reduced during the development of offspring.EMR could be considered as a cause of oxidative brain and liver injury in growing rats”.
Hamzany Y, Feinmesser R, Shpitzer T, Mizrachi A, Hilly O, Hod R, Bahar G, Otradnov I, Gavish M, Nagler RM.(2013). Is Human Saliva an Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Using Mobile Phones? Antioxid Redox Signal.18(6), 622-7.
- Significant increase in all salivary oxidative stress indices studied in mobile phone users.
- Salivary flow, total protein, albumin, and amylase activity were decreased in mobile phone users.
- “These observations lead to the hypothesis that the use of mobile phones may cause oxidative stress and modify salivary function.”
Hou Q1, Wang M, Wu S, Ma X, An G, Liu H, Xie F. (2014). Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells. Electromagn Biol Med.
- Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure
- The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05).
- These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.
Nazıroğlu M, Yüksel M, Köse SA, Özkaya MO. (2013). Recent reports of Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced radiation on oxidative stress and reproductive signaling pathways in females and males. J Membr Biol. 246(12), 869-75.
- Review Paper: “In conclusion, the results of current studies indicate that oxidative stress from exposure to Wi-Fi and mobile phone-induced EMR is a significant mechanism affecting female and male reproductive systems.”
Tomruk A1, Guler G, Dincel AS. (2010). The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on hepatic oxidative DNA and lipid damage in nonpregnant, pregnant, and newly born rabbits. Cell Biochem Biophys. 56(1), 39-47.
- “the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RF radiation exposure may lead to oxidative destruction as being indicators of subsequent reactions that occur to form oxygen toxicity in tissues”
Yakymenko. (2014). Low intensity radiofrequency radiation: a new oxidant for living cells.
Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 3(1), 1-3.
- A “strong non-thermal character of biological effects of RFR has been documented” and “it is clear that the substantial overproduction of ROS in living cells under low intensity RFR exposure could cause a broad spectrum of health disorders and diseases, including cancer in humans.
- Undoubtedly, this calls for the further intensive research in the area, as well as to a precautionary approach in routine usage of wireless devices.”
Studies at non-thermal (no measurable temperature change) levels of microwave exposures show chromosomal instability, altered gene expression, gene mutations, DNA fragmentation, and DNA structural breaks. Genetic mutations and cellular damage can potentially contribute to cancer growth. Strong effects from microwaves have been found in stem cells. Since stem cells are more active in children, researchers are concerned that children are at increased risk.
While electromagnetic fields may not directly damage DNA, research indicates they could set into motion a series of biological impacts that result in genetic damage.
A 2015 experimental study found that 2.4 GHz (Wi-Fi radiation) can alter expression of some of the miRNAs, and the study’s authors concluded that “long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases originated from the alteration of some miRNA expression and more studies should be devoted to the effects of RF radiation on miRNA expression levels.”
Dr. Lai analyzed research since 2006 and found there are more papers reporting effects from exposure than no effect: New radiofrequency studies report that 65% of genetic studies show effects and 35% do not show effects.
Schwarz C, et al., 2008, Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS, 1,950 MHz) induce genotoxic effects in vitro in human fibroblasts but not in lymphocytes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. Feb 16
- OBJECTIVE: Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) was recently introduced as the third generation mobile communication standard in Europe. This was done without any information on biological effects and genotoxic properties of these particular high-frequency electromagnetic fields. This is discomforting, because genotoxic effects of the second generation standard Global System for Mobile Communication have been reported after exposure of human cells in vitro.
- METHODS: Human cultured fibroblasts of three different donors and three different short-term human lymphocyte cultures were exposed to 1,950 MHz UMTS below the specific absorption rate (SAR) safety limit of 2 W/kg. The alkaline comet assay and the micronucleus assay were used to ascertain dose and time-dependent genotoxic effects. Five hundred cells per slide were visually evaluated in the comet assay and comet tail factor (CTF) was calculated. In the micronucleus assay 1,000 binucleated cells were evaluated per assay. The origin of the micronuclei was determined by fluorescence labeled anticentromere antibodies. All evaluations were performed under blinded conditions.
- RESULTS: UMTS exposure increased the CTF and induced centromere-negative micronuclei (MN) in human cultured fibroblasts in a dose and time-dependent way. Incubation for 24 h at a SAR of 0.05 W/kg generated a statistically significant rise in both CTF and MN (P = 0.02). At a SAR of 0.1 W/kg the CTF was significantly increased after 8 h of incubation (P = 0.02), the number of MN after 12 h (P = 0.02). No UMTS effect was obtained with lymphocytes, either unstimulated or stimulated with Phytohemagglutinin.
- CONCLUSION: UMTS exposure may cause genetic alterations in some but not in all human cells in vitro.
Burlaka A, Tsybulin O, Sidorik E, Lukin S, Polishuk V, Tsehmistrenko S, Yakymenko.(2013). Overproduction of free radical species in embryonal cells exposed to low intensity radiofrequency radiation. Exp Oncol. 35(3), 219-225.
- “Exposure of developing quail embryos to extremely low intensity RF-EMR of GSM 900 MHz during at least one hundred and fifty-eight hours leads to a significant overproduction of free radicals/reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage of DNA in embryo cells. These oxidative changes may lead to pathologies up to oncogenic transformation of cells.”
Blank M, Goodman R.(2011). DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields. Int J Radiat Biol. 87(4), 409-15.
- “The wide frequency range of interaction with EMF is the functional characteristic of a fractal antenna, and DNA appears to possess the two structural characteristics of fractal antennas, electronic conduction and self symmetry. These properties contribute to greater reactivity of DNA with EMF in the environment, and the DNA damage could account for increases in cancer epidemiology, as well as variations in the rate of chemical evolution in early geologic history.”
Guler G, Tomruk A, Ozgur E, Seyhan N. (2010). The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and lipid damage in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits and their newborns. Gen Physiol Biophys. 29(1), 59-66.
- Malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels of non-pregnant and pregnant radiofrequency exposed animals significantly increased compared with not-exposed controls.
- The authors conclude, that 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency exposure of non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits for seven days resulted in the release of secondary messengers, such as free radicals, leading to oxidative destruction in lipids and DNA.
- Rabbits prenatally exposed to cell phone radiation developed more indicators of DNA damage such as greater amounts of free radicals.
Güler G , Tomruk A , Ozgur E , Sahin D , Sepici A , Altan N, Seyhan N. (2012). The effect of radiofrequency radiation on DNA and lipid damage in female and male infant rabbits. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 88(4), 367–373.
- Lipid peroxidation levels in the liver tissues of female and male infant rabbits increased under RF radiation exposure. Liver 8-hydroxy-2 ’ -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels of female rabbits exposed to RF radiation were also found to increase when compared with the levels of non-exposed infants.
- Conclusion: Consequently, it can be concluded that GSM-like RF radiation may induce biochemical changes by increasing free radical attacks to structural biomolecules in the rabbit as an experimental animal model.
Ruediger HW. (2009). Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Pathophysiology. 16(2-3), 89-102.
- Review:101 publications reviewed on the genotoxicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in vivo and in vitro. Of these 49 report a genotoxic effect and 42 do not. In addition, 8 studies failed to detect an influence on the genetic material, but showed that RF-EMF enhanced the genotoxic action of other chemical or physical agents…Taking altogether there is ample evidence that RF-EMF can alter the genetic material of exposed cells in vivo and in vitro and in more than one way. This genotoxic action may be mediated by microthermal effects in cellular structures, formation of free radicals, or an interaction with DNA-repair mechanisms.
Tomruk A, Guler G, Dincel AS. (2010). The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on hepatic oxidative DNA and lipid damage in nonpregnant, pregnant, and newly born rabbits. Cell Biochem Biophys. 56(1), 39-47.
- This study looked at the biological effects of whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure on liver oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels in nonpregnant, pregnant New Zealand White rabbits, and in their newly borns.
- Key Findings: In nonpregnant RF exposed and pregnant RF exposed malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferrous oxidation in xylenol orange (FOX) levels were increased compared to non pregnant controls.
- In this study, we found that whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RF exposure for 15 min/day for a week could affect lipid peroxidation by increasing MDA and FOX levels in nonpregnants and pregnant.
- “the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RF radiation exposure may lead to oxidative destruction as being indicators of subsequent reactions that occur to form oxygen toxicity in tissues”
Xu S, Zhou Z, Zhang L, Yu Z, Zhang W, Wang Y, Wang X, Li M, Chen Y, Chen C, He M, Zhang G, Zhong M. (2010). Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons. Brain Research. 22(1311), 189-96.
- “In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24 h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Concomitant with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient antioxidant in the brain.
- These results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain.”
Zhijian C, Xiaoxue L, Yezhen L, Shijie C, Lifen J, Jianlin L, Deqiang L, Jiliang H. (2009) Impact of 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on DNA damage and repair induced by doxorubicin in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells. Mutat Res. 695(1-2), 16-21.
- “In vitro study, a comet assay was used to determine whether 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR, SAR of 2W/kg) can influence DNA repair in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells exposed to doxorubicin (DOX)
- DNA damage was detected at 0h, 6h, 12h, 18h and 24h after exposure to DOX via the comet assay, and the percent of DNA in the tail (% tail DNA) served as the indicator of DNA damage.
- The results demonstrated that (1) RFR could not directly induce DNA damage of human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells; (2) DOX could significantly induce DNA damage of human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells with the dose-effect relationship, and there were special repair characteristics of DNA damage induced by DOX; (3) E-E-E type (exposure to RFR for 2h, then simultaneous exposure to RFR and DOX, and exposure to RFR for 6h, 12h, 18h and 24h after exposure to DOX) combinative exposure could obviously influence DNA repair at 6h and 12h after exposure to DOX for four DOX doses (0.075microg/ml, 0.10microg/ml, 0.15microg/ml and 0.20microg/ml) in human B-cell lymphoblastoid cells.”
Endocrine System Damage
Research has shown impacts to the pineal gland, adrenal gland, and thyroid gland. These glands balance hormones that involve sleep. Research has shown that low levels of microwave exposure can reduce melatonin. Melatonin is not just critical to maintaining our sleep rhythm but it is also an extremely important antioxidant that helps to repair damaged DNA and reduces the growth of cancer cells. Additionally, research shows thyroid hormone levels can be impacted by wireless radiation. It has been established that even a small change in thyroid hormones can alter the brain.
Mina D et al,.(2016) Immune responses of a wall lizard to whole-body exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 2016 Mar;92(3):162-8. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2016.1135262. Epub 2016 Feb 6.
- Purpose During the last three decades, the number of devices that emit non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at the wireless communication spectrum has rapidly increased and possible effects on living organisms have become a major concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of radiofrequency EMR emitted by a widely used wireless communication device, namely the Digital Enhanced Communication Telephony (DECT) base, on the immune responses of the Aegean wall lizard (Podarcis erhardii).
- Materials and methods Adult male lizards were exposed 24 h/day for 8 weeks to 1880-1900 MHz DECT base radiation at average electric field intensity of 3.2 V/m. Immune reactivity was assessed using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin swelling and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) tests. Results Our results revealed a noticeable suppression (approximately 45%) of inflammatory responses in EMR-exposed lizards compared to sham-exposed animals. T cell-mediated responses were marginally affected.
- Conclusion Daily radiofrequency EMR exposure seems to affect, at least partially, the immunocompetence of the Aegean wall lizard.
Kesari KK, Kumar S, Behari J. (2011). 900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(4), 219-234.
- Significant decrease in the enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and an increase in catalase enzyme activity. Protein kinase C enzyme activity was significantly decreased in the samples of the exposed group (hippocampus and whole brain).
- A significant decrease in the level of pineal melatonin and a significant increase in creatine kinase and caspase 3 enzyme activities was observed in the exposed group (whole brain).
- A significant increase in the level of reactive oxygen species was also recorded.
Kesari KK, Kumar S, Behari J. (2012). Pathophysiology of microwave radiation: effect on rat brain. Appl Biochem Biotechnol . Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 166(2), 379-88.
- A significant decrease in the level of pineal melatonin of the exposed group.
- A significant increase in creatine kinase, caspase 3, and calcium ion concentration was observed in whole brain of exposed group of animals.
- The study concludes that a reduction in melatonin or an increase in caspase-3, creatine kinase, and calcium ion may cause significant damage in brain due to chronic exposure of these radiations. These biomarkers clearly indicate possible health implications of such exposures.
Koyu A, Cesur G, Ozguner F, Akdogan M, Mollaoglu H, Ozen S.(2005). Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic field on TSH and thyroid hormones in rats. Toxicology Letters.157(3), 257-262.
- TSH values and T3-T4 at the 900 MHz EMF group were significantly lower.
- These results indicate that 900 MHz EMF emitted by cellular telephones decrease serum TSH and T3-T4 levels.
Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J.(2011). The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field onthe reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 66(7), 1237-45.
- Significant increases in caspase and creatine kinase.
- Significant decreases in testosterone and melatonin in the exposed groups.
- This finding emphasizes that reactive oxygen species (a potential inducer of cancer) are the primary cause of DNA damage. However, pulsed electromagnetic field exposure relieves the effect of microwave exposure by inducing Faraday currents.
Mortavazi S, Habib A, Ganj-Karami A, Samimi-Doost R, Pour-Abedi A, Babaie A. (2009). Alterations in TSH and Thyroid Hormones following Mobile Phone Use. Oman Med J. 24(4), 274–278.
- A higher than normal TSH level, low mean T4 and normal T3 concentrations were found in mobile users.
- “It may be concluded that possible deleterious effects of mobile microwaves on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis affects the levels of these hormones.”
Hancı H, Türedi S, Topal Z, Mercantepe T, Bozkurt I, Kaya H, Ersöz Ş, Ünal B, Odacı E. Can prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field affect the morphology of the spleen and thymus, and alter biomarkers of oxidative damage in 21-day-old male rats? Biotech Histochem. 2015 May 19:1-9.
- The effects of a 900 Megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF), applied during the prenatal period, on the spleen and thymus of 21-day-old male rat pups.
- Compared to the control group, thymus tissue malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in the group exposed to EMF, while glutathione levels were significantly decreased. Increased malondialdehyde and glutathione levels were observed in splenic tissue of rats exposed to EMF, while a significant decrease occurred in superoxide dismutase values compared to controls. Transmission electron microscopy showed pathological changes in cell morphology in the thymic and splenic tissues of newborn rats exposed to EMF.
- Exposure to 900 MHz EMF during the prenatal period can cause pathological and biochemical changes that may compromise the development of the male rat thymus and spleen.
Disruptions to Heart Functioning
Research shows increases in heart rate, arrhythmias, dizziness, changes in blood pressure, and other disturbances in the heart’s cardiovascular functioning after exposure to wireless radiation. Several studies reported changes in EEG after prolonged repeated exposure to radiofrequency radiation. In some of these studies, relatively low power densities were used.
Saili et al. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45 GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 40(2):600-605. September 2015,
- Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45 GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits.
- Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50 ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control.
- These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system.
Alhusseiny A, Al-Nimer M, Majeed A. Electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phone alters electrocardiographic records of patients with ischemic heart disease. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2(2):146-151, 2012.
- This study aimed to investigate the effect of radiofrequency of mobile phone on the electrocardiographic parameters in patients with history of ischemic heart disease, taking into consideration the gender factor.
- Electrocardiogram was obtained from each patient when the mobile phone was placed at the belt level and over precordium in turn-off mode (baseline) and turn-on mode for 40 sec ringing.
- The position of mobile at the belt level or over the precordium showed effects on the heart. The radiofrequency of cell phone prolongs the QT interval in human beings and it interferes with voltage criteria of ECG records in male patients with myocardial ischemia.
Esmekaya MA, Ozer C, Seyhan N. (2011). 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress on heart, lung, testis and liver tissues. Gen Physiol Biophys. 30(1), 84-9.
- MDA and NOx levels were increased significantly in liver, lung, testis and heart tissues of the exposed group compared to sham and control groups .(p < 0.05).
- Results of our study showed that pulse-modulated RF radiation causes oxidative injury in liver, lung, testis and heart tissues mediated by lipid peroxidation, increased level of NOx and suppression of antioxidant defense mechanism.
Havas M, Marrongelle J. (2010). Provocation study using heart rate variability shows microwave radiation from 2.4 GHz cordless phone affects autonomic nervous system. European Journal of Oncology. 5, 273-300.
- 10 of the subjects (40 percent) displayed increased heart rate, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats, a.k.a. heart palpitations).
- Four subjects experienced overt tachycardia, or intense and prolonged heart racing, after a second or two of exposure, with one subject’s heart almost tripling its rate.
- Strong increases in sympathetic nervous activity and decreases in parasympathetic activity from exposures.
Havas M, Marrongelle J. (2013). Replication of heart rate variability provocation study with 2.4-GHz cordless phone confirms original findings, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 32(2), 253-266.
- Double blind, sham-controlled study documented an increased Heart Rate, altered HRV and changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic control of the Autonomic Nervous System.
- “Our results demonstrate that the radiation from a 2.4-GHz cordless phone affects the ANS and may put some individuals with preexisting heart conditions at risk when exposed to electromagnetic frequencies to which they are sensitive.”
Türedi S, Hancı H, Topal Z, Unal D, Mercantepe T, Bozkurt I, Kaya H, Odacı E. (2014) The effects of prenatal exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old male rat heart. Electromagn Biol Med. Aug 28:1-8.
- This study investigated the effects on rat pup heart tissue of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF. Pregnant rats were divided into experimental (00 MHz EMF (1 h/d) on days 13-21 of pregnancy) and control groups. On postnatal day 21, heart tissues were extracted.
- Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase values were significantly higher in the experimental group rats, while glutathione values were lower. Light microscopy revealed irregularities in heart muscle fibers and apoptotic changes in the experimental group. Electron microscopy revealed crista loss and swelling in the mitochondria, degeneration in myofibrils and structural impairments in Z bands.
- Our study results suggest that exposure to EMF in the prenatal period causes oxidative stress and histopathological changes in male rat pup heart tissue.
Saini, Barjinder Singh; Pandey, Anukul, Effect of Wireless Network Radiation on Heart Rate Variability, International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering4.1
- The results indicate that there is a significant increase in DFA scaling exponent when the WNR level changed from minimum to maximum value, as p-value <0.05, whereas the change in mean value of ApEn was not significant due to higher standard deviation among all the subjects. The WNR exposure caused changes in HRV indices and it varied with WNR level, but all the changes cannot be considered as p values were higher.
Andrzejak R, Poreba R, Poreba M, Derkacz A, Skalik R, Gac P, Beck B, Steinmetz-Beck A, Pilecki W. The influence of the call with a mobile phone on heart rate variability parameters in healthy volunteers. Ind Health. 46(4):409-417, 2008.
Dumansky, J.D. and Shandala, M.G., The biologic action and hygienic significance of electromagnetic fields of super high and ultra high frequencies in densely populated areas, in: “Biologic Effects and Health Hazard of Microwave Radiation: Proceedings of an International Symposium,” P. Czerski, et al., eds., Polish Medical Publishers, Warsaw, 1974.
Shandala, M.G., Dumanski, U.D., Rudnev, M.I., Ershova, L.K. and Los, I.P., Study of nonionizing microwave radiation effects upon the central nervous system and behavior reaction. Environ Health Perspect 30:115-121, 1979.
Takashima, S., Onaral, B. and Schwan, H.P., Effects of modulated RF energy on the EEG of mammalian brain. Rad Environ Biophys 16:15-27, 1979.
A Synergistic Effect between Electromagnetic Fields and Toxic Exposures
Research shows that exposure to electromagnetic fields could potentially increase the effects from other exposures. For example, a recent study showed a significant dose-response relationship between the number and duration of voice calls made on cell phones and ADHD risk among children exposed to lead in their environment.
Byun Y-H, Ha M, Kwon H-J, Hong Y-C, Leem J-H. (2013). Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study. PLoS ONE. 8(3)
Kostoff and Lau., (2013) Combined biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields and other agents in the published literature, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 80, Issue 7, September 2013, Pages 1331–1349
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields FromWireless Communicationupon the Blood-Brain Barrier, A review of published research, Bioinitiative 2012
Reviews of the Research
There have been many notable research reviews published that cover various research topics in electromagnetic fields.
Carpenter DO. (2013). Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Rev Environ Health. 28(4), 159-72.
- This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities.
In summary, current extensive evidence shows that exposure to excessive levels of ELF and RF EMFs results in elevated rates of cancer and some other diseases, and such evidence is rapidly growing.
Cucurachi S, Tamis WL, Vijver MG, Peijnenburg WJ, Bolte JF, de Snoo GR. (2013). A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Environ Int. 51, 116-40.
- A systematic review of published scientific studies.
- In about two third of the reviewed studies ecological effects of RF-EMF was reported at high as well as at low dosages.
- “We propose in future studies to conduct more repetitions of observations and explicitly use the available standards for reporting RF-EMF relevant physical parameters in both laboratory and field studies.”
Davis DL, Kesari S, Soskolne CL, Miller AB, Stein Y. Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen.Pathophysiology. 2013 Apr;20(2):123-9
- Recent analyses not considered in the IARC review find that brain tumor risk is significantly elevated for those who have used mobile phones for at least a decade. Studies carried out in Sweden indicate that those who begin using either cordless or mobile phones regularly before age 20 have greater than a fourfold increased risk of ipsilateral glioma.
- High resolution computerized models based on human imaging data suggest that children are indeed more susceptible to the effects of EMF exposure at microwave frequencies. If the increased brain cancer risk found in young users in these recent studies does apply at the global level, the gap between supply and demand for oncology services will continue to widen.
- Brain cancer is the proverbial “tip of the iceberg”; the rest of the body is also showing effects other than cancers.
Martin Pall. (2013). Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects, Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine.17(8), 958-65.
- This paper reviews 24 different studies in which EMF exposures produce biological effects that can be blocked by using calcium channel blockers, drugs that block the action of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs).
- EMF exposures act by partially depolarizing the electrical charge across the plasma membrane of cells, activating the VGCCs and it is the increased intracellular calcium levels that are responsible for the reaction to EMF exposure.
- This review explains a mechanism for non-thermal biological effects from EMFs whereby voltage-gated calcium channels are opened up in the cell membrane, allowing calcium to leak into the cells.
Herbert MR, Sage C., Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link part II. Pathophysiology. 2013 Jun;20(3):211-34. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2013.08.002. Epub 2013 Oct 8.Select item 240950038.
- Autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are defined behaviorally, but they also involve multileveled disturbances of underlying biology that find striking parallels in the physiological impacts of electromagnetic frequency and radiofrequency radiation exposures (EMF/RFR). Part I (Vol 776) of this paper reviewed the critical contributions pathophysiology may make to the etiology, pathogenesis and ongoing generation of behaviors currently defined as being core features of ASCs. We reviewed pathophysiological damage to core cellular processes that are associated both with ASCs and with biological effects of EMF/RFR exposures that contribute to chronically disrupted homeostasis. Many studies of people with ASCs have identified oxidative stress and evidence of free radical damage, cellular stress proteins, and deficiencies of antioxidants such as glutathione. Elevated intracellular calcium in ASCs may be due to genetics or may be downstream of inflammation or environmental exposures. Cell membrane lipids may be peroxidized, mitochondria may be dysfunctional, and various kinds of immune system disturbances are common. Brain oxidative stress and inflammation as well as measures consistent with blood-brain barrier and brain perfusion compromise have been documented. Part II of this paper documents how behaviors in ASCs may emerge from alterations of electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization, how EMF/RFR could contribute to these by de-tuning the organism, and policy implications of these vulnerabilities. It details evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, immune system dysregulation, neuroinflammation and brain blood flow alterations, altered electrophysiology, disruption of electromagnetic signaling, synchrony, and sensory processing, de-tuning of the brain and organism, with autistic behaviors as emergent properties emanating from this pathophysiology. Changes in brain and autonomic nervous system electrophysiological function and sensory processing predominate, seizures are common, and sleep disruption is close to universal. All of these phenomena also occur with EMF/RFR exposure that can add to system overload (‘allostatic load’) in ASCs by increasing risk, and can worsen challenging biological problems and symptoms; conversely, reducing exposure might ameliorate symptoms of ASCs by reducing obstruction of physiological repair. Various vital but vulnerable mechanisms such as calcium channels may be disrupted by environmental agents, various genes associated with autism or the interaction of both. With dramatic increases in reported ASCs that are coincident in time with the deployment of wireless technologies, we need aggressive investigation of potential ASC-EMF/RFR links. The evidence is sufficient to warrant new public exposure standards benchmarked to low-intensity (non-thermal) exposure levels now known to be biologically disruptive, and strong, interim precautionary practices are advocated.
Herbert MR, Sage C., Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link – Part I. Pathophysiology. 2013 Jun;20(3):191-209. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2013.08.001. Epub 2013 Oct 4.
- Although autism spectrum conditions (ASCs) are defined behaviorally, they also involve multileveled disturbances of underlying biology that find striking parallels in the physiological impacts of electromagnetic frequency and radiofrequency exposures (EMF/RFR). Part I of this paper will review the critical contributions pathophysiology may make to the etiology, pathogenesis and ongoing generation of core features of ASCs. We will review pathophysiological damage to core cellular processes that are associated both with ASCs and with biological effects of EMF/RFR exposures that contribute to chronically disrupted homeostasis. Many studies of people with ASCs have identified oxidative stress and evidence of free radical damage, cellular stress proteins, and deficiencies of antioxidants such as glutathione. Elevated intracellular calcium in ASCs may be due to genetics or may be downstream of inflammation or environmental exposures. Cell membrane lipids may be peroxidized, mitochondria may be dysfunctional, and various kinds of immune system disturbances are common. Brain oxidative stress and inflammation as well as measures consistent with blood-brain barrier and brain perfusion compromise have been documented. Part II of this paper will review how behaviors in ASCs may emerge from alterations of electrophysiological oscillatory synchronization, how EMF/RFR could contribute to these by de-tuning the organism, and policy implications of these vulnerabilities. Changes in brain and autonomic nervous system electrophysiological function and sensory processing predominate, seizures are common, and sleep disruption is close to universal. All of these phenomena also occur with EMF/RFR exposure that can add to system overload (‘allostatic load’) in ASCs by increasing risk, and worsening challenging biological problems and symptoms; conversely, reducing exposure might ameliorate symptoms of ASCs by reducing obstruction of physiological repair. Various vital but vulnerable mechanisms such as calcium channels may be disrupted by environmental agents, various genes associated with autism or the interaction of both. With dramatic increases in reported ASCs that are coincident in time with the deployment of wireless technologies, we need aggressive investigation of potential ASC – EMF/RFR links. The evidence is sufficient to warrant new public exposure standards benchmarked to low-intensity (non-thermal) exposure levels now known to be biologically disruptive, and strong, interim precautionary practices are advocated.
Redmayne M. International policy and advisory response regarding children’s exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Electromagn Biol Med. 2015 Jun 19:1-9.
- Over twenty countries and municipalities have issued policy or advisories on reducing exposure to electromagnetic fields.
- “There are a wide variety of approaches which I have categorized and tabulated ranging from ICNIRP/IEEE guidelines and “no extra precautions needed” to precautionary or scientific much lower maxima and extensive advice to minimize RF-EMF exposure, ban advertising/sale to children, and add exposure information to packaging. Precautionary standards use what I term an exclusion principle. The wide range of policy approaches can be confusing for parents/carers of children. Some consensus among advisory organizations would be helpful acknowledging that, despite extensive research, the highly complex nature of both RF-EMF and the human body, and frequent technological updates, means simple assurance of long-term safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs’ exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children.”
Markov M, Grigoriev YG.(2013). Wi-Fi technology – an uncontrolled global experiment on the health of mankind. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 32(2), 200-8
- “For the first time in the history of mankind, because of aggressive use of mobile phones children are exposed to harmful non ionizing radiation and potentially are subject of larger risk than adults. Even if the dose received by the children’s brain is the same as for adults, due to the specificity of the body size and physiological development, children are in greater danger.”
- We should stop telling the science, politicians and general population that Wi-Fi is harmless… We should better be honest and say that “we do not know what long-term effects might be.”
- “the continuous non-controlled exposure of the entire civilization to low-intensity EMFs represents now more serious problem for the mankind than ionizing radiation where the sources of radiation are under strict control and are well localized”
Panagopoulos D, Johansson O, Carlo G. (2013). Analysing the Health Impacts of Modern Telecommunications Microwaves. PLoS One. 8(6).
- “In the present study we showed that microwave radiations used in modern mobile telecommunications can damage DNA and induce cell death or heritable mutations which may in turn result in reproduction decreases, degenerative diseases, or cancer. We analyzed the biophysical and biochemical mechanism underlying this biological impact, and discussed dosimetry and protection issues.
- All healthy organisms have defense mechanisms in order to repair biological damages. But defense mechanisms are weaker in children and old individuals, and become also weaker during sickness or during stress conditions. Although even the most serious biological effects may not necessarily lead to health effects in an exposed individual, all health effects are initiated by corresponding biological ones. Thereby, biological effects-especially the most serious ones as is DNA damage or cell death induction-may potentially lead to health effects.
- Children are exposed to various kind of non-ionizan radiation in their daily life involuntarily. The potential sensitivity of developing organism to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) signals, the higher estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) values of children and greater lifetime cumulative risk raised the scientific interest for children’s vulnerability to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In modern societies, children are being exposed to EMFs in very early ages. There are many researches in scientific literature investigating the alterations of biological parameters in living organisms after EMFs. Although the international guidelines did not report definite, convincing data about the causality, there are unignorable amount of studies indicating the increased risk of cancer, hematologic effects and cognitive impairment. Although they are less in amount; growing number of studies reveal the impacts on metabolism and endocrine function. Reproductive system and growth look like the most challenging fields. However there are also some concerns on detrimental effects of EMFs on thyroid functions, adrenal hormones, glucose homeostasis and melatonin levels. It is not easy to conduct a study investigating the effects of EMFs on a fetus or child due to ethical issues. Hence, the studies are usually performed on virtual models or animals. Although the results are conflicting and cannot be totally matched with humans; there is growing evidence to distress us about the threats of EMF on children.
The ICEMS’ Monograph, “Non-Thermal Effects and Mechanisms of Interaction Between Electromagnetic Fields and Living Matter”, edited by Livio Giuliani and Morando Soffritti for the “European Journal of Oncology” – Library Vol. 5 of the National Institute for the Study and Control of Cancer and Environmental Diseases “Bernardo Ramazzini”, Bologna, Italy, 2010, Part I and Part II. To purchase the paper edition of the monograph, send a request to: Mattioli1885, publisher, Fidenza (I), www.mattioli1885.com.
Blank M, Goodman R.(2009). Electromagnetic fields stress living cells. Pathophysiology. 16(2-3), 71-8.
- “Electromagnetic fields (EMF), in both ELF (extremely low frequency) and radio frequency (RF) ranges, activate the cellular stress response, a protective mechanism that induces the expression of stress response genes, e.g., HSP70, and increased levels of stress proteins, e.g., hsp70.
- While low energy EMF interacts with DNA to induce the stress response, increasing EMF energy in the RF range can lead to breaks in DNA strands. It is clear that in order to protect living cells, EMF safety limits must be changed from the current thermal standard, based on energy, to one based on biological responses that occur long before the threshold for thermal changes”.
This is just a small sampling of the research. Want to Read It All?
The Bioinitiative 2012 Report has an invaluable sets of abstracts (data-based to be searchable) covering the RFR scientific literature, as well as collections of scientific abstracts on free radical damage (from both RFR and ELF) and a set specific to electrosensitivity. They cover the research published between 1990-2014. Please see these summaries at the Bioinitiative 2012 site here.
Children and Pregnant Women are at a Higher Risk
Current research indicates that children and the fetus are most at risk from exposures to electromagnetic fields. Their systems are still developing so even small insults can result in large impacts later in life. Equally important, their smaller stature, thinner skulls and unique body makeup result in radiofrequency radiation penetrating their brains and bodies more deeply than large adults. Children have more active stem cells which are shown to be more impacted by microwave radiation. Current government safety standards do not adequately account for these differences.
Fernandez-Rodriguez, C.E.; De Salles, A.A.A.; Davis, D.L., “Dosimetric Simulations of Brain Absorption of Mobile Phone Radiation–The Relationship Between psSAR and Age,” in Access, IEEE , vol.3, no., pp.2425-2430, 2015 doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2502900
- A young child’s skull is not only smaller and thinner than an adult’s, but also has dielectric characteristics closer to those of soft tissues, probably due to a higher water content. The young skull better matches the electromagnetic characteristics of the skin and brain. As a result, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations confirm field penetration and higher specific absorption rate (SAR) in deeper structures in the young brain.
- If the peak spatial SAR (psSAR) is modeled in the entire head, as current testing standards recommend, the results for adults and children are equivalent.
- Our anatomically based evaluations rely on FDTD simulations of different tissues within the brain and confirm that the psSAR in a child’s brain is higher than in an adult’s brain.
Gandhi OP, Morgan LL, De Salles AA, Han YY, Herberman RB, Davis DL. (2012). Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagn Biol Med. 31(1), 3451.
- The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the “guidelines” of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency.
- Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child’s head’s absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull’s bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. T
- herefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.
Markovà E, Malmgren L, Belyaev I, (2010). Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk, Environ Health Perspect. 118(3), 394–399.
- “The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals.”
Redmayne M, Johansson O. Radiofrequency exposure in young and old: different sensitivities in light of age-relevant natural differences. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Dec 1;30(4):323-35. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0030.
- First, we identified the literature which has explored age-specific pathophysiological impacts of RF-EMR. Natural life-span changes relevant to these different impacts provides context for our review of the selected literature, followed by discussion of health and well-being implications.
- We conclude that age-dependent RF-EMR study results, when considered in the context of developmental stage, indicate increased specific vulnerabilities in the young (fetus to adolescent), the elderly, and those with cancer. There appears to be at least one mechanism other than the known thermal mechanism causing different responses to RF-EMR depending upon the exposure parameters, the cell/physiological process involved, and according to age and health status. As well as personal health and quality-of-life impacts, an aging population means there are economic implications for public health and policy.
Gandhi, Om. Yes the Children are more exposed to radio-frequency energy from mobile telephones than adults. IEEE Spectrum. PP(99):1. Jun 23, 2015.
- In this paper we present arguments based on Physics that the main reason for higher exposure of children (also women and men with smaller heads and likely thinner pinnae) to radiofrequency energy from mobile phones is the closer placement of the cell phone radiation source by several millimeters to the tissues of the head, e.g. the brain. Using heterogeneous anatomically-derived shaped models of the head, we have previously reported that the exposure increases by a compounding rate of 10-15% for every single millimeter of closer location of the radiating antenna.
Christ A, Gosselin MC, Christopoulou M, Kühn S, Kuster N. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users. Phys Med Biol. 55(7):1767-1783, 2010.
- The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no agedependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.
- The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.
Liorni I, Parazzini M, Fiocchi S, Douglas M, Capstick M, Kuster N, Ravazzani P. COMPUTATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF PREGNANT WOMAN MODELS EXPOSED TO UNIFORM ELF-MAGNETIC FIELDS: COMPLIANCE WITH THE EUROPEAN CURRENT EXPOSURE REGULATIONS FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES AT 50 Hz. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2015 Nov 30.
- Only a few studies have been devoted to the investigation of the compliance in pregnant women(17–20) Therefore, until now, there have been no studies in literature that assess the compliance of pregnant women exposed to MF at 50 Hz with both the European Recommendation 1999(2) and the Directive 2013(3
- This study aimed to assess the compliance of pregnant women to the current regulations, when exposed to uniform MF at 50 Hz (100 μT for EU Recommendation and 1 and 6 mT for EU Directive). For general public, exposure of pregnant women and fetus always resulted in compliance with EU Recommendation. For occupational exposures, (1) Electric fields in pregnant women were in compliance with the Directive, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of <10 %, (2) electric fields in fetuses are lower than the occupational limits, with exposure variations due to fetal posture of >40 % in head tissues, (3) Electric fields in fetal CNS tissues of head are above the ICNIRP 2010 limits for general public at 1 mT (in 7 and 9 months gestational age) and at 6 mT (in all gestational ages).
- “In this case, for all the exposure scenarios at 9 months of GA, the Jpeak was always found to be higher than the limit of the Recommendation (Figure 2) in some tissues, which do not belong to the CNS tissues of head and trunk (Table 5), where the stimulation due to ELF-MF exposure could occur.”
“The comparison of the fetal-induced electric fields to the basic restriction of the ICNIRP Guidelines 2010(1) for the general public shows that E99th values in the fetal CNS tissues of the head were higher than the limits and therefore not intrinsically compliant with these safety recommendation at 1 mT in 7 and 9 months of GA and at 6 mT in all GAs (Figure 7).”
Bellieni et. al., Exposure to electromagnetic fields from laptop use of “laptop” computers. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2012;67(1):31-6. doi: 10.1080/19338244.2011.564232.
- The authors measured electromagnetic fields (EMFs) laptop computers produce and estimated the induced currents in the body, to assess the safety of laptop computers. When close to the body, the laptop induces currents that are within 34.2% to 49.8% ICNIRP recommendations, but not negligible, to the adult’s body and to the fetus (in pregnant women). On the contrary, the power supply induces strong intracorporal electric current densities in the fetus and in the adult subject, which are respectively 182-263% and 71-483% higher than ICNIRP 98 basic restriction recommended to prevent adverse health effects.
EMF Portal This site holds all of the research on EMFs. Stay updated on peer reviewed published research and you also can search within the database for research studies on your health issues.